Bible & Book of Mormon Chronology / Kings of Israel

Biblical Timeline from Abraham to Hoshea, through the Kings of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. See Bible Chronology / Timeline from Adam to Zedekiah for more complete biblical timeline through kings of Judah and much more detail.  check out our genealogical correlation chart for a genealogy of all of these timeline together.

Gen. Descendant of Adam Notes about Life Life Span Begat son at age… Age Made King Total Reign Beg Reign   (Yr BC) DEATH (Yr BC) Scripture reference’s) which give exact ages/dates.
20 Abraham 175 100 75 ? 2022 BC? 1847 BC? Gen 21:5   25:7,8
21 Isaac 180 60 60 ? 1922 BC 1742 BC Gen 25:7   36:28
22 Jacob 147 68 79 ? 1862 BC 1715 BC Gen 47:28   9?
23 Judah 1794 BC 1657 BC
24 Pherez 1730 BC? 1730 BC?
25 Esrom 1660 BC? 1660 BC?
26 Aram Contemporary to Moses and Caleb 1597 BC 1477 BC
(The Exodus) See Note A.   Occurred when Moses was 80 years old.  In 1517 BC,  430 years after Abraham was 75 or 215 years passed from the time that Jacob entered Israel to the exodus. Acts 7:23, 30Gal 3:17Gen 15:13, 16
Aminadab contemporary to Joshua? N/A #REF! #REF!
Naason N/A #REF! #REF!
Salmon Comtemp to Ehud? N/A #REF! #REF!
Boaz Comtemp to Gideon N/A #REF! #REF!
Obed Ruth’s husband,   time of Jair N/A #REF! #REF!
Jesse Father of David,  contemp with Samuel N/A #REF! #REF!
David Born 1032 BC 70 33 40 1062 BC 1022 BC 2 Sam 5:4–5,  1 Chron. 29:27,  3:4
34 Solomon Temple lain in 1018 BC? ? 40 1022 BC 982 BC 2 Chron. 9:30,  1 Kings 11:42

Foundation of Temple is Lain: See Note C. Solomon lays temple foundation in 4rth year of his reign (Put period of the Judges Scriptures)

35 Jeroboam #### ? #VALUE! 940 BC   1 Kings 
Nadab KINGS OF NORTHERN KINGDOM 2 940 BC 938 BC 2 Chron. ,  1 Kings 15:25
Baasha 24 938 BC 914 BC 2 Chron. ,  1 Kings 15:33
Elah 2 2 2 914 BC 912 BC 2 Chron. ,  1 Kings 16:8
Omri 12 12 12 912 BC 900 BC 2 Chron. ,  1 Kings 16:23
Ahab 22 21 22 900 BC 878 BC 2 Chron.   1 Kings 16:29
38 Ahaziah N/A 2 878 BC 876 BC 2 Chron. ,   1 Kings 22:51 
Jeroham 12 12 12 876 BC 864 BC 2 Chron. ,  2 Kings 3:1
Jehu 28 28 28 864 BC 836 BC 2 Chron. ,  2 Kings 10:36
41 Jehoahaz 17 17 17 836 BC 819 BC 2 Chron. ,  2 Kings 13:1
41 Jeoash 16 16 16 819 BC 803 BC 2 Chron. ,   2 Kings 13:10
42 Jeroboam 41 41 803 BC 762 BC 2 Chron. ,  2 Kings 14:23
43 Menahem 10 10 10 762 BC 752 BC 2 Chron. ,  2 Kings 15:17
43 Pekahiah Murdered x 2 2 2 752 BC 750 BC 2 Chron. ,  2 Kings 15:23
44 Pehah Murdered x 20 12 20 750 BC 730 BC 2 Chron.  2 Kings 15:27
45 Hoshea 9 -16 9 730 BC 721 BC 2 Chron.  2 Kings 17:1
Assyria sacks Israel in 12th year of Ahaz’ riegn or 730 BC
46 Hezekiah Sun goes back 15 degrees 54 42 25 29 728 BC 699 BC 2 Chron. 29:1,  2 Kings 18:2
47 Manasseh 67 45 12 55 699 BC 644 BC 2 Chron. 33:1,  2 Kings 21:1
48 Amon  (x) Murdered 24 16 22 2 644 BC 642 BC 2 Chron. 33:21  2 Kings 21:19 
49 Josiah 39 14 8 31 642 BC 611 BC 2 Chron. 34:1  2 Kings 22:1
50 Jehoiakim (a.ka. Eliakim)   vassal to pharaoh 36 15 25 11 611 BC 600 BC 2 Chron. 36:5,  2 Kings 23:36
Zedekiah (a.k.a. Mattaniah)    Johoiakim’s cousin 32 32 21 11 600 BC 589 BC 2 Chron 36:11.  2 Kings 24:18

Lehi and family leave Jerusalem in the 1st year of Zedekiah’s riegn, 600 yrs before Christ.

Descendant of Adam Notes about Life Life Span Begat son at age… Age Made King Total Reign BIRTH    (Yr BC) DEATH (Yr BC) Scripture reference’s) 
Lehi Born about time of Amon?  (670 BC?) N/A 572 BC? 2 Nephi 4:122 Nephi 5:28
50 Nephi Left Jerusalem in 1st yr of Zedek.  ___ yrs old 72? ? 615 BC 543 BC Jacob 1:12, Jacob 1:1
Jacob Probably about 25 yrs younger than Nephi 94? 74? N/A N/A 599 BC 505 BC 2 Nephi 2:1
51 Enos Son of Jacob 105 N/A N/A 420 BC Enos 1:25
52 Jarom Son of Enos N/A N/A 359 BC? Jarom 1:5, 13
53 Omni Son of Jarom N/A N/A 317 BC? Omni 1:3, 5
54 Chemish Son of Omni.  (Brother of Amaron) N/A N/A 246 BC? Omni 1:9
55 Abinadom Son of Chemish N/A N/A 200 BC? Omni 1:10–11
56 Amaleki Son of Abinadom  (Contemp, with Mosiah I) N/A N/A 159 BC Omni 1:12, 23
57 Benjamin Contemporary of Amalaki.  (gives him plates) 194 BC 122 BC Mosiah 6:4–5
58 Mosiah II Son of Benjamin 63 30 33 92 BC Mosiah 29:46
59 Alma II Son of Alma (contemp with Mosiah’s sons) N/A 73 BC Alma 45:18–20
60 Heleman I Son of Alma II 57 BC Alma 62:52
61 Helaman II Son of Heleman I 50BC 11 39 BC Hel 2:1–2,  3:37
62 Nephi II Son of Heleman II    (disappears) N/A ? 1 AD Hel 3:373 Ne. 1:1–2, 2:9
63 Nephi III Son of Nephi II  (Prophet at Christ’s coming) N/A? N/A N/A N/A ? likely one of the immortal 3 nephites
64 Nephi IV Son of Nephi III (the deciple)  kept the records 85? 70? N/A N/A 20 AD? 110 AD 4 Ne 1:19–20 (4 Ne. title page)
65 Amos Son of Nephi IV 114? 100? N/A 84 90 AD? 194 AD 4 Ne. 1:21
66 Amos II Son of Amos I.  Age of Mormon’s dad 131? 110? N/A N/A 174 AD? 305 AD 4 Ne. 1:47
Ammaron Brother of Amos II.   Age of Mormon’s dad?  N/A N/A 325 AD?
67 Mormon Gets plates from brother of Amos II  (son’s age) 90 ?? N/A N/A 311 AD 401 AD Mormon 1:1–6, 8:3, 6
68 Moroni Son of Mormon 421 AD Moroni 10:1

– 4 ne. 1:14 says all Christ’s deciples died by 72 AD. (thats 38 yrs after Christ’s coming) guessing that they were between 20 & 60 this means that their life spans were between 58 & 98.  (so not too old)

– 4 ne 1:18 says that by 110 AD, all the first generation who were alive at Christ’s coming had died.  Mormon is likely the one writing this as an abridgment.  And so any statements as to the length of a “generation” are his.  Judging from verse 22 where Mormon once again says the second generation had all passed away by 200 AD; the lifespan of BOM people was between 70-100 from the time of Christ to Mormon’s day.

– However, note that Amos dies in 194 AD.  His his father Nephi IV died in 110 AD.  Thus, since Nephi had to give birth to his son before he died (and likely quite a few years) then Amos had to be born before 110 AD (but was probably born in at least 90 AD).  If this is true, then Amos would have been between 84 and as much as 114 years old when he died. 

– The same applies to Amos II.  He died in 305 AD, and yet his father died in 194 AD.  Thats 111 years between thier deaths!!!  And since Amos II was probably not born on his father’s death bed (but instead was likely born 20-40 years before) that means that Amos II would have been between 131 and 151 when he died!!

– Ammaron comes and talks to Mormon “about” the same time he hid up the records which we are told was in 321 AD (4 ne 1:48).  Mormon tells us he was 10 years old at this time (Morm 1:1).  This means that Mormon was born in 311 AD.  Moroni tells us that Mormon died around 401 AD (Mormon 8:3, 6). This means that Mormon was 90 years old when he was still leading the Nephite forces!!!  I think it is safe to say that something very crazy is going on with the average life expectancy during this epoch!

Book of Mormon Chronology / Timeline of Jaredites

Timeline Chronology for the Jaredite culture from the Book of Ether in the Book of Mormon.

The Book of Mormon Jaredite King List gives only 7 exact dates (lifespans and reigns) for the Jaredite Chronology. The only real markers we have to build a working chronology from are firstly, the date of the “dearth” and megafauna extinction given in the narrative of Heth Ether 9:25. (It is well established that Mastodons and other megafauna went extinct in North America at about 8,000 BC.)  And Secondly, the last Jaredite date which can be placed somewhere between ~570 BC when the Old World Migrants arrived and ~180 BC when the move to Zarahemla took place. As with most “King Lists” found in the old world, the list suggests a direct father to son succession, even though large breaks in time are almost positively present. Comparison with Egyptian, Sumerian and Babylonian King Lists in the Old World suggests this practice of mistakenly inferring direct succession was common, as later rulers wished to prove political legitimacy based on genealogy. All dates and ages are complete conjecture and are based upon the notes and the handful of exact dates (only about 7 given dates) marked in underlined bold. Jared is said to have lived during the time of the Bible’s Tower of Babel which a literal Biblical timeline puts very close to the time of Abraham. However, Babylonian and Akkadian records suggest that this event was a common aspect of mythical records as early as 4000 BC. I suggest the true date to whatever event actually spawned this myth occured sometime around C14 date of 14,000 BC. The last Jaredite historian, Coriantumr lived sometime just before the time of King Mosiah in the Book of Mormon.  See the genealogical table correlation chart to see agreement between this timeline and other biblical internal genealogies. Guessed life Spans and other dates on this chart (dates not in underlined bold) are made to approximately match the ages and dates of corresponding figures in the bible timeline.

Desendant of Jared timeline-notes about life Life Span Age at sons birth Reign Saw sons reign  Age made king Possible Year? Scripture References for kings life…..
1 Jared 240? 180? 100? 14,000 BC Ether 1-6 – Ether 6:29
2 Orihah^ lived exceedingly many days 230? 150? 110? 70? Ether 6:27  –  Ether 7:3
3 Kib* born in fathers old age, captive pait of life 210? 90? 90? 30? Ether 7:3, –  Ether 7:10
4 Shule* bom in fathers old age. captive a short time  205? 90? 90? 30? Ether 7:3  –   Ether 8:1
5 Omer*^ born in fathers old age, left kingdom many years, saw exceedingly many days 175? 122? 120? 30? Ether 8:1 –  Ether 9:15
War kills Majority  (Large time gap in king list?)
6 Emer* bom In fathers old age 150? 58? 62 2 26? Ether 9:14Ether 9:22
7 Corianturn^ had no children until he was exceedingly old, had children in his old age, lived to 142 142 116? 110? 4 28? Ether 9:21 –  Ether 9:25
8 Com* born when his father was exceedingly old (over 102) , killed by own son 125? 45? 49 26? Ether 9:25 –  Ether 9:27
Great Dearth
9 Heth died In drought 70? 30? 40? 30?  8000 BC Ether 9:25 –  Ether 10: 1
10 Shez^ lived to an exceedingly old age 120? 82? 80? 40? Ether 10:1Ether 10:4
11 Riplakish after 42 years of reign, people revolt and kill him 80? 30? 42 38? Ether 10:4 –  Ether 10:8
12 Morianton^ as outcast, he retakes kingdom, lived to an exceedingly great age 120? 95? 70? 8 42? Ether 10:9 –  Ether 10:13
13 Kim* born in father’s exedingly great age; after short reign lives the rest of life in captivity 90? 80? 65? 25? Ether 10:13Ether 10:14
14 Levi* born in father’s old age, after 42 years captive he retakes kingdom, lived to a good old age 100? 50? 90? 10? Ether 10:14 –  Ether 10:16
15 Corom^ saw many days 120? 70? 70? 50? Ether 10:16 –   Ether 10:17
16 Kish 80? 45? 30? 50? Ether 10:17 –  Ether 10:18
17 Lib^ pinnacle of Jaredite prosperity, lived many years. 105? 70? 70? 35? Ether 10:18Ether 10:29
18 Hearthom after 4 years of reign, lives rest of life in captivity 70? 40? 35? 35? Ether 10:29 –  Ether 10:31
19 Heth captive whole life 60? 30? 30? 30? Ether 10:31Ether 10:31
20 Aaron captive whole life 60? 30? 30? 30? Ether 10:31 –  Ether 10:31
21 Amniqaddah captive whole life 60? 30? 30? 30? Ether 10:31  – Ether 10:31
22 Corianturn captive whole life 60? 25? 30? 30? Ether 10:31 –  Ether 10:31
23 Com drew away half of kingdom 42 years, then battled many years and took whole kingdom, lived to a good old age 85? 65? 65? 35? Ether 10:31 –  Ether 11:4
Great Destructions (large time gap in king list?)
24 Shiblon exceedingly great war and many destructions, many kIlled in war 55? 25? 20? 35?  540 BC Ether 11:4Ether 11:9
25 Seth captive whole life 60? 35? 30? 30? 520 BC Ether 11:9 –  Ether 11:9
26 Ahah retakes the kingdom, lived few days 40? 20? 15? 25?  490 BC Ether 11:10 –  Ether 11: 10
27 Ethem 75? 40? 55? 20?  475 BC Ether 11:11  – Ether 11:14
28 Moron lost half the kingdom for a time, then retook all,  then lost whole kingdom and dwelt in captivity rest of life 70? 40? 35? 35?  420 BC Ether 11:14 –  Ether 11:18
29 Coriantor captive whole life 60? 20? 30? 30?  385 BC Ether 11:18 –  Ether 11:23
30 Ether the prophet 75? 35? 40?  355 BC Ether 11:23 –  Ether 15:34
Complete Destruction
End year that Coriantumr would have been found by people of Zarahemla 320 BC?  Complete conjecture

Symbols:
* = born in fathers old age
^ = lived an exceedingly long time
Bold = exact date given in scripture

the reason behind the date for Coriantumr is that when the people of Lemhi sent a group out to find Zerahemla, and yet they overshot and found a land “covered with bones” and brought back the 24 plates.  Well unburried bones desentigrate in a hundred years or so unless its very arid.  Thus they must have found the land within a hundred years of when the battles occured (Mosiah 21:25–28).  

We know it happened a while before King Mosiah I, since the Mulekites brought the stone with the record of Coriantumr staying with them at that time..and spoke of it like it was a while back (Omni 1:20–22).    This was some time before 130 BC.

King Limhi’s group went north about 121 B.C.

So perhaps around 130-250 BC.  Or perhaps not. Placing absolute dates on the Jaredite chronology is largely conjecture.

correlation of all genealogical tables given in biblical/LDS scripture

correlation of all genealogical tables given in biblical/LDS scripture

Animals in the Book of Mormon

 

Many Book of Mormon critics try to show issues or anachronisms with the lists of animals found in its narrative; for example the wikipedia articles on Book of Mormon Archaeology and Book of Mormon Anachronisms. The Book of Mormon certainly has its major issues.. (see Arguments For and Against the Authenticity of the Book of Mormon), but reading these animal issue attacks always seems strangely biased to me. In fact articles like this have so many blatant falsities that they’re a bit difficult for a well-read person to stomach. Debunked statements on their being no evidence of the domestication of certain animals, or no evidence of the ancient use of metal plates, or no evidence of certain animals in the new world are peppered throughout many similar critical articles. I have huge problems with many of Mormonism’s exclusivist truth claims; and the Book of Mormon has a lot of other problems to overcome; however, regardless of whether you believe the Book of Mormon narrative or not you have to consider the fact that the mention its assorted animals is not a deal breaker for it being a truly channeled translation of an ancient history. Especially when one considers the possibility of a very “loose translation” (dynamic equivalence instead of formal equivalence) in the channeling process of the book.

Throughout this article, keep in mind that our model places the Nephites primarily in the Mexican Highland, the Lamanites in the Yucatan and the Jaredites primarily in North America— the early Jaredite record being an abridged oral & channeled history spanning from the Ice age to the Nephite era.

 

The Book of Mormon makes clear that both Jaredites and Nephites who lived in ancient times on this continent had domestic animals of various kinds. They also speak of wild varieties of presently domesticated animals. The earlier people, the Jaredites (unknown beginning to ~300 B.C.), are reported to have had,

all manner of cattle, of oxen, and cows, and of sheep, and of swine, and of goats, and also many other kinds of animals which were useful for the food of man. And they also had horses, and asses, and there were elephants and cureloms and cumoms; all of which were useful unto man, and more especially the elephants and cumoms. (Ether 9:18–19)

The Nephites (c. 600 B.C. – 400 A.D.) on the other hand tell us,

that there were beasts in the forests of every kind, both the cow and the ox, and the ass and the horse, and the goat and the wild goat, and all manner of wild animals, which were for the use of men. (1 Nephi 18:25; cf. Mosiah 5:14; Enos 1:12; Alma 5:59; Alma 17)

Elephants

Note that Elephants are in the list for animals useful for the early Jaredites. Evidence for the extinction of all North American Elephants (Mammoth & Mastodon) by carbon dates of 7,000 BC is overwhelmingly conclusive. This requires that the early Jaredite record was older than most people (including possibly the Book of Mormon authors themselves) believed. Unless carbon dates are somehow wrong, it seems likely that the Jaredite record (much like the Biblical & Babylonian records) may have presented a somewhat condensed version of cultural histories leading back to the ancient Babel tower myth. The mention of elephants and other extinct animals, along with the obvious fact that the Book of Mormon tells us the Jaredites were the first inhabitants of this continent is the most striking evidence for our correlated timeline which correlates the early pre-dearth Jaredites with North American paleo Indians living prior to the end of the ice age. (The “dearth” in Ether 9:30 being a massive episode of climate change ending the last ice age cycle) Because of the mention of elephants, correlating the paleoindian with the archaic cultures of North America is THE ONLY plausible correlation. (see this article which covers date discrepancies). This is certainly plausible since the record itself does not give any concrete dates for the Jaredite culture (only a genealogy table). There are literally thousands of archeological sites showing that the clovis and paleoindians lived on diets rich in megafauna.  Many archaeologists have in fact suggested that these native american groups may have been responsible for hunting many of these animals to extinction. This highly debated theory gives a lot of weight to the idea given in the book of Ether where it states,

30 And it came to pass that there began to be a great dearth upon the land, and the inhabitants began to be destroyed exceedingly fast because of the dearth, for there was no rain upon the face of the earth.
31 …And it came to pass that their flocks began to flee… towards the land southward, which was called by the Nephites Zarahemla…
34 And it came to pass that the people did follow the course of the beasts, and did devour the carcasses of them which fell by the way, until they had devoured them all.

 

size comparison of mammoth, mastodon and african elephants

Cureloms and Cumoms

Many other extinct Pleistocene megafauna fit the description of Jaredite animals mentioned in the Book of Mormon. Paleo Indians were known to interact with and eat animals such as giant sloths; short-faced bears; several species of tapirs; saber-toothed cats like Smilodon; dire wolves; saiga; camelids such as two species of now extinct llamas and Camelops. Since it is generally accepted that “cureloms and cumoms” were especially “useful” to man (Ether 9:18–19), and unknown to Mormon in translation (not necessarily Joseph Smith), I think the most likely candidates are the giant sloth, wooly rhino and camelids.

A few of the many North American megafauna which co-existed with the paleoindians. (nearly all of which went extinct at the end of the ice age (which we correlate with the "great dearth" spoken of in the Book of Mormon).

A few of the many North American megafauna which co-existed with the paleoindians. (nearly all of which went extinct at the end of the ice age (which we correlate with the “great dearth” spoken of in the Book of Mormon).

Cattle, Oxen, and Cows

Concerning the Jaredite “cattle, of oxen, and cows” mentioned in Ether 9:18, likely matches would have to be American Bison (subfamily Bovinae/bovine), shrub ox (family Bovidae: went extinct with other megafauna); Harlan’s muskox (family: bovidae, subfamily: caprinae), Moose (family Cervidae, could have been classified as either cow or horse by Mormon/Ether depending on their cultural classification system) and for Mesoamerica and 1 Nephi 18:25, Baird’s Tapir which is locally known as the “Mountain Cow”. Each of these species ranged far south of their current habitat during the last Ice Age. There is of course no evidence for moose or shrub ox in Mexico, so the only option for the Nephite list is Bison as an Ox, which historical accounts put as far south as Zacatecas (Lst et. al 2007); and Tapir, perhaps as a swine or cow type animal. (It’s certainly nothing like a horse! LOL)

cattle, oxen and cows

cattle, oxen and cows

Large tapir.

A large Baird’s Tapir. Also known to the indigenous as the “Mountain Cow”.

 

Goats

Possibilities include North American Mountain Goats. (Our current scientific classification system does not include this animal in the Capra genus with most goats, but Joseph or Mormon could have very well have been referring to this type of animal).

The North American Mountain Goat.

The North American Mountain Goat.

The Nephite animal list differentiates between “goats and wild goats”. Although modern botanists classify North American antelope into a different family than goats (Antiloocapridae vs. Bovidae), you can see how similar the the two animals look. Antelope were known to be a major food staple of assorted Mesoamerican groups like the early Zapotecs ranging as far south as Oaxaca. This may very well be the wild and non-wild goat that the Nephites were referring to.

North American pronghorn antelope compared to both European and Middle Eastern varieties of goats.

North American pronghorn antelope (left) compared to both European and Middle Eastern varieties of goats (middle and right).

 

Sheep

Many species of wild sheep are indigenous to north america. Including Rocky Mountain big horn, Dall Ram, Desert big horn. See wild sheep of north america for details. Note that sheep are not mentioned in the Nephite animal lists, only the Jaredite. This is fitting since, unlike antelope (goats) and bison (cows), no North American sheep are known to have ranged very far south into Mexico.

A few of North America's native sheep species include the Peninsular Ram, the Dall's sheep the Peninsular Ram and the Rocky Mountain Ram

A few of North America’s native sheep species include (shown from left to right above) the Peninsular Ram, the Dall’s sheep the Peninsular Ram and the Rocky Mountain Ram.

Swine

Note this is not mentioned in the Nephite list of animals, only the Jaredite list.. Perhaps because many of the larger ranging North American peccaries (Including the long nosed and flat-headed peccaries) went extinct with other megafauna. Pigs (family Suidae) are not native to the Americas, however peccaries, which are native to the Americas (family Tayassuidae) have roamed limited parts of the continent since the demise of their relatives at the end of the ice age. Tapirs are also somewhat reminiscent of pigs. They are prevalent in central america and grow to be six and a half feet in length and can weigh more than six hundred pounds. Many zoologists and anthropologists have compared the tapir’s features to those of a cross between a pig and a cow.

Extinct North American peccary, living meso-american jungle peccary and north american dessert javelina

Extinct North American peccary (shown left), living North American dessert javelina (center), and Mesoamerican jungle peccary (right).

 

Ass & the Horse

Domestication of caribou, bison, reindeer, and even elk are not uncommon.

Domestication of caribou, bison, reindeer, and even elk are not uncommon.

Horses aren’t specifically mentioned in the Book of Mormon as being the type of animal that carried people. In fact in the instances that they are mentioned in relation to “chariots”, the wording could easily be referring to some type of supply slay (3 Nephi 3:22; Alma 18:9–12).  So its actually pretty plausible that the Book of Mormon translators used the biblical/European word “horse” to refer to a different type of native animal.  Just as Reindeer are the “horse” of Norse peoples, it seems fairly possible that the purported Book of Mormon channelers translated words for White-tale and Mule Deer (or even Elk, North American caribou or moose for those living farther north) in instances it was used. Both elk and deer have been readily domesticated in modern times. Elk farming in North America has become increasingly popular in recent years and Siberian natives have been domesticating elk and deer for thousands of years. Europeans also have occasionally domesticated deer for hundreds of years. Deer in most national parks and many urban settings as well as Elk in National Parks such as the Grand Canyon and Yellowstone have become so docile as to cause problems by their constant dependence and interaction with people. There are even numerous historic images of old cowboys riding elk. It seems logical that if many Nordic cultures could get a caribou to pull a sleigh then it is certainly plausible that some talented ‘deer whisperers’ could train a strong mule deer to pull a ceremonial supply ‘chariot’ as mentioned in Alma 18:9–12. I also find it interesting that settlers named the deer species O. hemionus “Mule Deer” because the animals large ears reminded them so much of a Mule or Ass. Deer are incredibly common in Mexico and even provided a main source of food for cultures as far south as the Yucatan Peninsula and Guatemala.

The idea that Book of Mormon references to “horses” refereed to tapirs, is far too much of a stretch in my opinion. I’m not sure why anyone would suggest such a thing when there are such better alternatives.

 

comparisons of African wild ass, European ass and North American mule deer.

Comparisons of African wild ass (left), European ass (center) and North American mule deer (right).

 

Comparison of modern horse and North American cow Elk.

Comparison of modern horse and North American Elk (shown at right).

Flocks & Herds

The Book of Mormon makes frequent mention of “flocks and herds”. In addition to the animals mentioned above it is relevant to note that archeological evidence shows that many Mesoamerican peoples bred, raised and subsisted on animals such as dog, turkey, rabbit and deer. Archaeological evidence indicates dogs and deer were a substantial part of the Mayan diet. In fact, at the Colha site, white-tailed deer accounted for up to fifty percent of the Maya meat source. Likewise, Zapotec cultures relied heavily on domesticated dog and turkey. It makes sense that, many of the references to “flocks and herds” may be referring primarily to these animals. Early Zapotec peoples are also known to have subsisted on antelope— of which similar species have been readily domesticated in various areas of Asia and Africa.  Peccary and tapir are also well known indigenous animals which could have been primary components of Book of Mormon “flocks and herds”. Although evidence for animal domestication in Mesoamerica is hard to come by, this may well be because it is often difficult, if not impossible, to tell the difference between a wild animal and a domesticated animal from archaeological food remains. Below is an example from Nara deer park in Japan, of how easy it is to domesticate wild animals… you simply need to give them a reliable food source.

Although it is certainly possible that the Book of Mormon was written by Joseph Smith or one of his contemporaries, instead of being channeled from heaven or translated from an ancient record–the supposed animal “anachronisms” are not a very solid argument against its authenticity.

Domesticating Deer. Nora Deer Park, Japan

Video of man Riding Buffalo

Video of man attempt at Riding Elk

Video of man attempted Moose Ride

Video of domesticating Antelope

A little detail behind why the only animals that Native American’s had much success Domesticating were, turkey, dog, and possibly deer & bison on a more limited basis.

The Scattering and Gathering of Israel

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[This article is a draft.  It needs a lot of work].

Introduction
This topic is highly speculative, but a lot of fun nonetheless.  I theorize that the evolution of humankind is guided by higher-dimensional beings in accordance to the Zoo Hypothesis (except that beings would be extra-dimensional, not necessarily extra planetary). I believe that the historical domination of the world by Middle Eastern and European peoples was the result of interference on the part of these higher beings. I believe that the Bible, and other religious and channeled works (such as Jacob 5 in the Book of Mormon), detail the movements of a group of genetically altered peoples (The House of Israel) throughout the earth since the days of Abraham. This view might perhaps make the biblical statement from the “Lord” to  to Abraham a bit more meaningful

“That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; …And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed” (Gen 22:16–18).

Outline

1. The scattering and gathering of Israel is the ultimate global civilization program. Many channeled works have suggested it was a eugenics program carried out by higher-beings who minister or watch over the evolutionary process of our planet. Its purpose was to civilize the planet in a timely manner and prepare the planet for entrance into the terrestrial glory or Millennial Era (actually just a natural cosmological phenoma of earth coming into a region of space where we are more connected to the galactic aether (Greek)/spirit (Hebrew) or whatever you prefer to call it). Many have also speculated that higher beings used Abraham’s sons along with a few others to introduce certain DNA sequences which have aided mankind in several important aspects of human evolution and eternal progression. Jacob 5 can be used to speculate the scope of this program.

2. The people of “Israel” are NOT the Israel we think of as existing today.
-It is important to make clear that “Israel” is NOT the Jews as we know them today. The full 12 tribes of Israel are not recognizable by trying to compare them to the mixed remnants of 2 tribes which compose “Israeli” or Jewish people today. The Bible suggests that Israel was far more multicultural than many suppose. Jacob was purposely inspired to have children with Semitic women (Mesopotamian/Indian) & their non-Semitic slaves (handmaidens) who represented two other major divisions of the earth– Africa! & Central Asia?). Israel has further been purposely mixed throughout the world. The “mother tree” of Jacob 5 is also not a religion, it is a people and culture. The final product will be a global culture & universal brotherhood.

3. “Pruning” is overseen by the higher beings guiding our evolution. It would have occured through population decline, war and plague. Just as with natural selection, the most spiritually and physically healthy live while the undesired and non-robust genetic groups become diminished or extinct.

4. A Basic outline of the mixing/pruning or natural selection driven breeding program is as follows (following Jacob chapter five/dates given in carbon dates until ~600BC):

TIMES OF ISRAEL (2000 bc to 34 ad)

FIRST MIXING, PART A. (planting genetic material into 3 branches/divisions of afro-eurasia)
1-Israel mixed into Africa through the Egyptian captivity. Great influence on early Egyptian religion, culture & government.
2-Israel mixed into Greece/Anatolia, North Asia (Mongolia) & Europe through Assyrian captivity. Great influence on Greek philosophy & government, as well as mesopotamia and turkish/mongol law, religion and government.
3-Israel mixed into Near-east & Indian Subcontinent through Babylonian captivity. Great influence of Israeli law, religion and government spanning from Akad/Babylon to Tibet.

FIRST MIXING, PART B. (major period of general diasporic colonialism where Middle-Eastern cultures and Israeli genetic material colonizes the world–including the “island continents”– in the same way European imperialism colonized the world following the renaissance).
1-African Israelis mixed into South America through phoenician trade vessels sometime between 1000BC-500 BC.
2-Ephraimitic Israelis mixed into Mesoamerica by multiple groups just before Babylonian captivity (~600 BC).
3-Asiatic Israelis mixed into Oceania through Tibetan (through Indochina) & early Mongolian groups.  Many groups are inspired to island hop throughout the West Pacific.

-The first mixing reaches its climax as Israeli culture takes over the Western World through Christianity & Islam. North African, Middle Eastern & Asiatic groups (including Israeli genetic carriers) move into Europe gradually and come to dominate the cultures of civilized western world by the end of the first Millennium AD.

TIMES OF THE GENTILES (34 AD – 2033 AD)
–SECOND/REVERSE MIXING, PART A. (major period of colonization and imperialism where Europe spreads its people and culture/religion into all the world, especially the 3 main aisles of the sea, N. America, S. America & Oceania. It is a reverse of the First Mixing, Part B).
1-Iberian (mixed-African) Christians of Spain & Portugal colonize and Christianize South America.
2-Norman (mixed-Semitic) Christians of England and France colonize and Christianize North America.
3-Slovic (mixed Asiatic) Christians of German & Dutch countries colonize and Christianize much of Oceania.

–SECOND/REVERSE MIXING, PART B (European Christians colonize and spread their political and cultural ideology into the 3 branches/divisions of Afro-Eurasia).
1-Western European countries colonize almost the entirety of Africa.
2-European culture & ideology is spread by the Russians throughout most of North Asia and the Asian steppe.
3-European culture & ideology is spread by Britain & others throughout India, Indochina and the Middle East.

 

FINAL BIBLICAL DISPENSATION (~2033 AD to 2600? AD)

–FINAL DOUBLE MIXING (final future stage of program where everything is gathered together in one)
-a final third version of the mother tree is recreated by creating a people and culture/religion who are all inclusive and incorporate the best beliefs/teachings of all the scattered branches into one religious brotherhood of man (the United States began this–spreading its influence across the Christian world, but restored Israel in Judea will finish it–spreading its influence across the Islamic world).
-this mixing parallels both the former mixings. With each superpower (America & Restored Judah) becoming a mixing pot of all the cultures on earth (but especially Christian culture for America & Islamic culture for Restored Judah). this is spread to the scattered branches and then the scattered branches are gathered back into it as well, and both pruned and cared for until they all resemble one healthy tree bearing fruit.

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-The first division into 3 was the sons of the archetype Noah.  (2,600BC/40,000BC)
Its hard to judge which aspects of the story of Noah are literal and which are metaphorical. I also believe the biblical Patriarchal Period (from Noah to Abraham is symbolic of a larger span of history, each patriarch representing an early epoch. Oahspe gives some interesting ideas on this.) First we look at the 3 divisions of the earth given to Noah’s 3 sons after the flood (explained best in the book of Jubilee). They may be actual individuals or more likely be metaphorical archetypes of groups of people. The oldest, Japheth is given the north-lands (East Asia/china), the youngest, Ham is given the southlands (Africa), and Shem the birthright middle-child is given middle-earth (Mesopotamia to India).

lands given to Ham, Shem and Japeth as explained in Oahspe and other texts.

lands given to Ham, Shem and Japheth as explained in Oahspe and other texts.

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Mother Israel is nurtured in each of these divisions (1800 BC – 74 AD sd/ 12,000 BC – 74 AD cd)
Abraham was a living archetype born in the lands of Shem. Joseph leads his posterity into Ham where they become captive for somewhere between 230 – 400+ years (and are scattered throughout Africa), before they are liberated back to their central homeland [1]. I speculate they integrate heavily with Shem in India during this time (Period of the Judges to just after king David). The second major captivity brings them into Japheth’s captivity with the Assyrian invasion and captivity of the Northern 10 Tribes of Israel [3]. Josephus, the Book of Jubilee and other obscure sources suggest at least one group of the Northern Kingdom flee deeply into north and east Asia assimilating with the Scythians or proto-mongols & European nomads (Scandinavia, Mongolia & China). Others likely integrated with the early nomadic turkish peoples and Arian’s of the caucasus region. The Babylonian invasion brings large populations of the Southern Kingdom of Judah into captivity in Shinar where they spread throughout the lands of Shem [2] from Mesopotamia to India & Tibet… especially during the Persian and Macedonian periods. (Babylon is primarily Semitic even though Nimrod its founder was of Ham through Cush).

Israel is scattered into Ham, Shem and Japheth during the Egyptian, Assyrian and Babylonian captivities.

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Mesopotamian Colonialism (500 BC – 200 AD/ 4,000BC – 200 AD)
During the era from about 500 BC to the time of Christ, the empires of the Middle east experience a period of expansionism and colonialism similiar to that of European Colonialism 2000 years later. There is evidence of Phoenician trade, shipping, colonialism and settlement from Northern Europe to Southern Africa to Indonesia. The Jews are also prolific during this era in setting up colonies in much of the known world. The Book of Mormon tells of the colonization of North America by at least two Israeli group, and Jacob 5 alludes to two other large colonizations to two other major “isles of the sea”, which I speculate are South America and Oceania. (The key to inferring this is in the verse that says the reverse grafting happens in last days… so just look at where europe colonized and you will see these are the obvious places.)  Even discounting the Book of Mormon narrative, there is evidence of extensive colonization throughout much of the Old world, and quite possibly even in the new world. The Kolbrin also recounts in detail the early colonization of Britain during this era by Israeli Egyptians and Phoenicians.

The three transplanted branches of the mother tree (groups from mother israel) are taken to North America, South America and Oceania. During the Israeli diaspora period of 600 BC to 450 BC.

The three transplanted branches of the mother tree (groups from mother israel) are taken to North America, South America and Oceania. During the Israeli diaspora period of 600 BC to 450 BC.

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European Settlement (800 BC – 600 AD/ 6,00 BC- 600 AD)
Europe is kept largely unsettled by its climate in early history, but with climate change Europe opens up for heavy colonization about 600 BC. Ham, Shem & Japheth move into their respective areas. The Kolbrin talks about huge Egyptian & Phoenician migrations. After Christ, Israel is salted into Europe and Jewish merchants and mystics become likely the single largest ruling influence upon the continent. By this time genetic code has been mixed thoroughly enough as to make differentiation between “Jew and Gentile” difficult.  Even so cultural Jews seem to thrive.

After Rome's destruction of Judah in 70 AD, the final diaspora leads hundreds of thousands of Jews into Europe, which is just beginning to grow rapidly in population and prominence.

After Rome’s destruction of Judah in 70 AD, the final diaspora leads hundreds of thousands of Jews into Europe, which is just beginning to grow rapidly in population and prominence.

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European Colonization & The Great Mixing (1500 AD – 2000 AD).
Grafting ‘them into them’: the colonial era and European imperialism is the key to knowing where the three branches of Jacob 5 were transplanted (given the B.O.M. narrative). Just look where Spain and England settled and civilized. England, largely colonized every division on the world (Ham, Shem and Japheth in Africa, India and China respectively). It also civilized “the isles of the sea” or the Americas & Oceania (Australia, New Zealand, etc..). The Iberians (Spain & Portugal), did most of the rest with South America & Oceania (Philippines, more, more, etc).

Europe’s colonization and conquest of the world. need to add boat routes and colonies.

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The restoration of Israel
The restoration began in the 19th century with the Zionist movement. The gathering will take place in two locations, Israel and North America. Both have already begun. The European Jews are the first fruits, but the Book of Ben Kathryn chronicles the wholesale resettlement of the entire Middle Eastern region as the climate shifts to more hospitable conditions. America has also become a melting pot, but the major gathering will take place after the United States divides and then begins to be rebuilt with true states rights.

To finish

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Allegory of the Olive Tree
The key to fully seeing the totality and fulfillment of this promise unto the House of Israel, is a simple line found in the prophesy of the ancient prophet Zenos. And an understanding the global colonialism by Gentile Christianity beginning with Christopher Columbus until present, is a preparatory fulfillment to the grafting in of the natural branches spoken of by Zenos.

Zenos’ Allegory of the Olive Tree is perhaps one of the most profound treatises offered on the topic of the scattering and Gathering of Israel found in Holy Writ. It is so impressive, in fact, that hundreds of years after it was given, Paul seems to drawn from its imagery by memory as he states to the Romans “And if some of the branches be broken off, and thou, being a wild olive tree, wert grafted in among them, and with them partakest of the root and fatness of the olive tree” (Romans 11:17). One reading Paul’s treatise on the scattering and gathering of Israel might not catch the full significance of the comparisons made had they not access to the original text from which he quotes. (available here).

The prophet Lehi, also drew from this allegory over 600 years before Paul. We are told of his exposition,

“Yea, even my father spake much concerning the Gentiles, and also concerning the house of Israel, that they should be compared like unto an olive-tree, whose branches should be broken off and should be scattered upon all the face of the earth. Wherefore, he said it must needs be that we should be … scattered upon all the face of the earth. And after the house of Israel should be scattered they should be gathered together again; or, in fine, after the Gentiles had received the fullness of the Gospel, the natural branches of the olive-tree, or the remnants of the house of Israel, should be grafted in, or come to the knowledge of the true Messiah, their Lord and their Redeemer.”

Here we learn that the olive tree used by Zenos is made to represent the House of Israel. And that multiple branches

A few chapters later Nephi sums it up even clearer as he states,

13 And now, the thing which our father meaneth concerning the grafting in of the natural branches through the fulness of the Gentiles, is, that in the latter days, when our seed shall have dwindled in unbelief, yea, for the space of many years, and many generations after the Messiah shall be manifested in body unto the children of men, then shall the fulness of the gospel of the Messiah come unto the Gentiles, and from the Gentiles unto the remnant of our seed—

This of course is a half of the equation explained by Zenos himself. A careful reading of this verse will lay the groundwork for the discovery of all the branches of the House of Israel. After explaining (quite literally) that .. planted in 3 different spost he says.. Explain first that the mother tree is Israel/The gentile Church. Then that the 3 trees in the nethermost are 3 righteous branches planted upon the isles of the sea (1Ne? ref)

“Wherefore, let us take of the branches of these which I have planted in the nethermost parts of my vineyard [3 groups planted on different major isles of the sea], and let us graft them into the tree from whence they came [Israel/Gentile Christianity]; and let us pluck from the tree those branches whose fruit is most bitter, and graft in the natural branches of the tree in the stead thereof… And, behold, the roots of the natural branches of the tree which I planted whithersoever I would are yet alive; wherefore, that I may preserve them also for mine own purpose, I will take of the branches of this tree [the mother tree], and I will graft them [the mother tree’s branches] in unto them [the three scattered Israelite people on the isles of the sea]. Yea, I will graft in unto them [again, the three trees] the branches of their mother tree, that I may preserve the roots [of the three trees] also unto mine own self, that when they shall be sufficiently strong perhaps they may bring forth good fruit unto me, and I may yet have glory in the fruit of my vineyard.”

So by grafting both ways…

 

Map of religious influence

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All the major players in the Human Drama have had the choice whether to unite or divide humanity. I believe in this final age, God will favor and sustain only those who unite. All other groups will become extinct. See the article The Scattering and Gathering of Israel for details on gods evolutionary plan for populating, diversifying, civilizing and unifying the planet.

 

Map of physical migrations…

Scattering of Israel

Illustration of Scattering of Israel

Summary of ideas still to write…

-The birthright is almost always given to the middle-child in the middle-land. The middle son, like Christ is the divine center. They are the strait and narrow way (or narrow middle way). The type is continued again and again, the first looses favor because of pride. From Cain, to Japheth, to Ishmeal, to Isau, to Rueben, to Saul, to Lamen, etc… The middle son becomes a microcosm of the opposites. He is the at-one-ment, and type of harmonizing the older and younger. He becomes a type of the first and the last, and is charged with redemption and bringing them together in harmony. This is also the job of scattered Israel.

-In both the times of Israel (Abraham to Christ) and during the Times of the Gentiles (Christ to present), God scattered the body of Israel (the chosen seed of Shem) into the lands of Japheth, Shem and Ham, as well as scattering/leading splinter groups of Israel into new frontier lands separated from the main body of humanity/civilization.

Scattering during the Times of Israel
1-The Egyptian habitation/captivity. During this 200+ year era, all 12 tribes are scattered throughout Hams seed by trade, migration in intermarriage.
2-The Assyrian deportation. Around 750 BC, Assyria sacks the Northern Kingdom of Israel and deports a large portion of its population into the Northern reaches of Assyria.

Alter this flash application to show the colonization of all European colonies around the world. Perhaps turn it into a leaflet map. and show how the colonies in Europe mirror the colonies of Israel and the 3 branches of the olive tree in the allegory.

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The Spirit Body Interface

chakras

The other morning I woke up with a fairly sophisticated idea of how this interaction works. I will attempt to teach it in the same way it was taught to me, although as I have thought about it the more I realize how much more there is to this.

The first idea to understand is that all matter and realities exist in differing densities often called dimensions. For example the mortal world exists in one density or dimension and the spirit world exists in another. The same is true for the three degrees of glory of heaven and hell. Each exists on or in a different density or dimension which can occupy the same “space” but different planes. As with all eternal principles a cipher or type is given us on earth in the three states of matter, Solid, Liquid and Gas. Each of these states are in essence differing densities and the key concept to understand is that substances always flow toward their own density; they are in fact quantized. So if you release a gas from a container underwater or even underground it will tend to raise to unite with material of its own level or density. Similarly, if you release liquid or solid from a container in the sky it will tend to fall to unite with its own “density” or level. [explore greater complexity in relation between gravity and density].

As a side note, notice that in each case an object or being made entirely of one density could move unhampered through any of the other densities provided the other densities “gave way” to the space displacement caused by that object. In other words a being or object of solid earth or liquid water can easily move through the air as long as the air allows the needed displacement. The opposite (that a being of gaseous air or liquid water could move through a solid such as salt or even theoretically iron, given the solid allows for the space displacement) is also true, but more difficult. So hopefully you can see how all movement of one density through another density depends upon the difference between the densities. Also important in this line of reasoning is how the density in which an object exists determines the “size” of the object. For example, a being of gaseous air (or a balloon for that matter) becomes much smaller if you force it to the bottom of the ocean (into a higher density or pressure), and likewise it would theoretically become smaller still if you could force it deep into earth.

Ok, so with that foundation lain we can now apply the same principles to densities as they relate to dimensions or “degrees of glory”. We can see that by forcing one dimension into another we affect both its size, and its ability to move through space (and time, but lets not go there yet). So a spirit, which can be compared to a being made of air because a spirit body is composed of less dense (rarefied, more pure) matter/energy, which is forced out of its natural density/dimension (the spirit world) and into a lower (more gross) density/dimension must, by virtue of the physics involved, “shrink”. Likewise its ability to move through space is also affected as a man trying to run underwater. We are in essence placed in a state of greater opposition and resistance/pressure.

Of equal importance is the concept that densities do not like to mix and so naturally the Spirit of man does not physically (or emotionally) want to be here. Like a balloon held underwater physically will always raise straight back up into the air unless it is constrained by a container, so also is the spirit of man physically pulled back toward the spirit world and is constrained from the transition only by its earthly container called a mortal body. [On another vain, think about how this relates to a resurrection into a density which is higher than our spirit’s energy/density “likes”.]

The next step in our journey toward understanding the spirit/body interface has to do with how one density of matter interacts with another. Now as is fairly well understood, there are two attractive forces in this world, the electric field and the other is the gravitational field. (see unified field theory to see how these relate) One of them affects mass, and thus is highly affected by density, the other affects charge and is thus highly affected by energy level (sorry for the crappy wording). So understanding these forces (let’s not analyze them too deeply because they are really just different aspects of the same force) we can see how the body (which is more dense) exerts an attractive force on the Spirit which is far lighter/less dense. In a relationship similar to the “heavy” earth holding the “light” moon in orbit, the “heavy” body holds the “light” spirit hostage. On the flip side, a highly “charged” particle (I hate to use these terms because they are so misleading) exerts a force even greater than the gravitational force on objects which are “less charged” (realize that positive and negative “charge” are in reality completely relative terms). For example a highly charged electro-magnet can lift or move a much heavier iron ball by virtue of charge difference. So in relation to the spirit/body interface this in the reverse of the gravitational force… the more highly charged spirit exerts an electrostatic force on the less “charged” body. So in that line of thinking, you could picture the spirit being like an electromagnet in and of itself. If you take that electromagnet and rub it in the dirt it will become covered in iron filings. The stronger the charge, the greater the power to pull those iron filings onto itself. The process with which the spirit “covers” itself with earth or iron filings during mortal growth and resurrection is a bit more complex.

The mother creates a fetus within herself through a process both biological and spiritual but for the most part it is the result of the parent’s genetic and spiritual make-up (not taking the spirit child into account). The spirit then enters the empty vessel prepared for it, in a process that takes an certain undisclosed amount of time (somewhere between 3-7 months?). Once in the body, the spirit is loosely held in place by “gravity” but more so by its own electric potential. After birth and during maturation, the body goes on biologically developing according to the instructions programmed into its body’s DNA, however a secondary developmental process is also at work… one which current science is completely unaware of. That process is the spirit’s (remember the electromagnet example of our spirit’s intelligence) subtle influence on the biological cell building process. Instead of an electromagnet pulling magnetic filings out of the earth to cover only its outer surface, the spirit pulls elements from the food we eat and air we breathe and coats/builds its every inner surface from the inside out (augmenting the biological process carried out under the instruction of the DNA). The consequence of this complementary spiritual building force is that if two different spirits where to be placed in genetically and biologically identical (DNA) bodies, the outcome after maturation could be biologically un-identical bodies (as is documented in non-identical monozygotic twins). More commonly, aspects of this process this can be seen in how even identical twins end up having different mental and physical skill sets, different facial expressions, and different cognitive abilities. This line of reasoning provides an alternate explanation why with non-identical monozygotic twins, two individuals with identical DNA, but very different spiritual powers end up being as different as two un-identical twins, because the power of the spirit combined with outside influences related to destiny have the power to “override” the programming of the DNA. A powerful spirit like Christ, has such powerful “charge” that his spirit could overpower any flawed programming in the DNA, eliminating cellular growth which might otherwise cause defects, disease or otherwise undesirable behavioral flaws. For one last example let us picture a cell dividing through mitosis. Lets imagine that the DNA of that cell is “flawed” and is instructing cell creation to occur in a way highly unlike (or undesirable to) the spirit body. Depending on the power of that spirit, the developing cell will be pulled accordingly toward the electric potential of the spirit’s cell causing a corresponding deviation from the DNA’s instructed path (even to changing the new cells DNA itself!)

So with a solid foundation lain on the Spirit’s potential energy, lets just state that it is quite small for most spirits, and explore how the spirit causes the body to move and act (in opposition to the state of death after a spirit leaves the body). Now obviously most mortal spirits have a very, very weak electric potential to the point that it can hardly even be read by current instrumentation. But we can all picture in our minds how if our spirit’s “electro-gravitational” potential where sufficiently strong, it could easily manipulate matter just as a strong electromagnet does. It could lift up cars, or be used to levitate ourselves as when Christ descended from the sky. With sufficient strength, and intelligence concerning how to manipulate matter at distance we could theoretically move large things (such as part the red sea) or move even just cells or atoms (such as healing a leaper or turning water to wine). From the knowledge we have of heavenly beings it would suggest that beings which dwell in higher densities/plains have a far greater electric potential than beings on our own plane. In the scriptures this is described as being full of “light”, which is in fact just a certain state of energy. This is why prophets, which filled with the “Holy Ghost” (or a being from a higher dimension) often have faces which show with radiant light. They are so energized (in a way we don’t quite understand) that the energy shines through their bodies without burning or harming them. (remember Moses had to be transfigured to stand in God’s presence to keep from being consumed/burnt)

That’s the effects of existing in a higher energy level, but for the rest of us our energy is so small that it can hardly move electrons (on our energy level). But the designer of our bodies understands well the principle of weights and counter balances. A man may be so weak that he can only lift a couple hundred pounds, but with a lever and thousand-pound counterbalances, he can use a tiny amount of effort to offset the balance system and lift great weights. In our bodies this is done through chemical reactions which are held in equilibrium. With carefully balanced equilibrium reactions, God has created a electro-chemical “machine” in which our spirits, with their limited strength, can use their infinitesimal electrical power over matter in this sphere to push a reaction existing at the synaptic nerve/spirit interface to be driven to a desired direction. This simple system of binary communication (the same system used to power our most powerful computers) allows the spirit to direct the body to do everything within its power. It seems obvious that spirits in another realm (having a deep understanding of the workings of the body) have been the source of inspiration for all our modern computer technology… based on the already existing, and far more complex, biological technology created by God. With this knowledge, one can more fully appreciate the complexity involved in the process of development and maturation. Our fully mature and intelligent spirits have to slowly learn how to program and control the sophisticated computers that are their new bodies, naturally and intelligently learning how to translate raw spiritual desires to nano-scopic binary synaptic impulses which then are translated into intelligible thought and chemical and biological motion. A process very similar to computer programming, but with the ability to heal itself and self-create additional circuitry and power.

Geologic Correlation Curve and Chart

The following chart summarizes the correlations between the scientific geologic timeline and the scriptural timeline. As mentioned in the main geologic correlation article (link), ….

Chart shows the correlation between scientifically discovered and dated events, and scriptural events.

Below is a correlation curve, showing geologic, archeological, and scriptural date correlations. As you can see, the date…

Superimposed correlaton curves for geologic and archeologic dates vs. scriptural dates.

Finish this….

Link to excel spreadsheet versions of these….

Link 1

Link 2

Bible Chronology / Timeline from Adam to Zedekiah

Overview

I’ve spent a good 15 years trying to test a literal biblical timeline against contemporary ancient king lists, timelines, archaeological evidence, geological evidence and other modern channeled texts.

One of the things that’s really stuck out to me in studying Egyptian, Greek, Babylonian and Akkadian histories is that these ancient people used cultural genealogies to legitimize their authority in the same way that modern Western culture uses science to claim cultural superiority. Each of them followed a similar template of claiming direct descent from the ancient heroes and demigods–passing through the ancient cataclysms–straight to their established rulers and religious priesthoods. For them it was a form of nationalism, ego and pride. To have the oldest, most cohesive history of one’s culture was to be able to lay claim of superiority over other cultures (for examples, see this article on ancient examples of history revisionism). In a tradition carried out by many Jews and Christians alike today, to possess the “true” history (ie. scripture) of the world was to be able to claim the mandate of heaven and approval of the gods or God himself. Josephus’s “On the Antiquity of the Jews” is a prime example.

Despite being forced by overwhelming evidence to drop a literal interpretation of the bible, my scholarly research has not altogether destroyed my faith in the Bible. In fact the more I study the enduring scriptural texts of ancient and modern cultures, the more I’m convinced that much of these books comes from a source of higher intelligence. But what I have come to believe through reading a great deal of historical and channeled material is that the Bible is a text of mysticism as much as it is a text of history. The numbers, dates, names and accounts for periods before Moses seem to be trying to teach hidden concepts more than they seem to be trying to give a literal history. That’s not to say their is not literal basis for some of the incredible historical events mentioned in the text (such as the Fall, Flood, Peleg, Tower, etc). But it is to say that to interpret them as most literalists do (such as biblical creationists) is to destroy their purpose and depth—and especially their mystical significance.

For an in depth example, one only need read Swedenborg’s, mystic interpretation of the Bible in his Arcana Cœlestia.  As another example… take the narrative given in the channeled Oaspe text. In this account it is inferred that the list of individuals from Adam to Noah, and from Noah to Terah, may actually be archetypes pointing to cycles of time spanning tens of thousands of years instead of a literal father-son genealogy spanning a mere few hundred years. Studying the king lists in  Egyptian, Sumerian and Babylonian culture also adds a good deal of insight. As well as the creation accounts found Hindu scripture or texts like The Kolbrin.

For an excellent treatise on the patterns and ancient context of biblical dates see “Making Sense of the Numbers of Genesis“.

For a well research literal timeline of the Bible, see the work of Daniel Gregg at Torahtimes.org

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Gen Descendant of Adam Notes about Life Total Life Span Begat son at… Lived after that … Prstd Ordin- ation BIRTH (Yr-BC) DEATH (Yr-BC) Scripture reference’s) which give exact ages/dates.
1 Adam Dates start at the Fall of Adam 930 130 800 4000 BC 3070 BC Moses 6:10, 11, 12Gen 5:3, 4, 5
2 Seth . 912 105 807 69 3870 BC 2958 BC Moses 6:13, 14, 16Gen 5:6, 7, 8
3 Enos . 905 90 815 134 3765 BC 2860 BC Moses 6:17, 18Gen 5:9, 10, 11
4 Cainan . 910 70 840 87 3675 BC 2765 BC Moses 6:19Gen 5:12, 13, 14
5 Mahalaleel . 895 65 830 496 3605 BC 2710 BC Moses 6:20Gen 5:15, 16, 17
6 Jared . 962 162 800 200 3540 BC 2578 BC Moses 6:21, 24Gen 5:18, 19, 20
7 Enoch Enoch translated either when 365 or 430 yrs old (in 1052 A.F. Or 2948 BC) N/A 65 N/A 25 3378 BC N/A Moses 6:25 7:68 8:1 – Gen 5:21, 22 D&C 107:49
8 Methuselah . 969 187 782 100 3313 BC 2344 BC Moses 8:5, 6, 7Gen 5:25, 26, 27
9 Lamech . 777 182 595 32 3126 BC 2349 BC Moses 8:8, 10, 11Gen 5:28, 30, 31
10 Noah See Note about Bible discrepacy 950 492 458 10 2944 BC 1994 BC Moses 8:12Gen 5:32 9:29
11 Shem . 610 110 500 2452 BC 1852 BC Gen 11:10, 11, 12

 

Noah’s Flood: Occurred when Noah was 600, and Shem was 108. That’s 1548 years from fall or 2344 BC. Noah died 350 years after it ended
(Gen 7:6,11 8:17 9:28).

 

12 Arphaxed . 438 35 403 2342 BC 1914 BC Gen 11:12, 13
13 Salah . 433 30 403 2307 BC 1884 BC Gen 11:14, 15
14 Eber . 464 34 430 N/A 2277 BC 1823 BC Gen 11:16, 17
15 Peleg In his days the earth is divided 239 30 209 N/A 2243 BC 2014 BC Gen 11:18, 19
16 Reu . 239 32 207 N/A 2213 BC 1984 BC Gen 11:20, 21
17 Serug . 230 30 200 N/A 2181 BC 1961 BC Gen 11:22, 23
18 Nahor . 148 29 119 N/A 2151 BC 2013 BC Gen 11:24, 25
19 Terah See Note about Bible discrepacy 205 70-130 +/-105 N/A 2122 BC 1927 BC Gen 11:26, 32, 12:1,4
20 Abraham . 175 100 75 ? 2022 BC? 1847 BC? Gen 21:5,25:7,8
21 Isaac . 180 60 60 ? 1922 BC 1742 BC Gen 25:7 36:28
22 Jacob . 147 68 79 ? 1862 BC 1715 BC Gen 47:28 9?
23 Levi . 137 64? 73? 1794 BC 1657 BC Exodus 6:16
24 Kohath Very little info (Only age at death given) 133 70? 63? 1730 BC? 1597 BC? Exodus 6:18
25 Amram Very little info (Only age at death given) 137 63? 74? 1660 BC? 1523 BC? Exodus 6:20
26 Moses Translated at age 120 N/A 40-80 N/A 40-80 1597 BC 1477 BC Deut. 34:7, Exodus 7:7, Acts 7:23,30

 

The Exodus: See Note. Occurred when Moses was 80 years old. In 1517 BC, 430 years after Abraham was 75 or 215 years passed from the time that Jacob entered Israel to the exodus (Acts 7:23,30Gal 3:17Gen 15:13,16).

 

Gen Descendant of Adam Notes about Life Total Life Span Begat son at… Age Made King Total Reign Beg Reign (Yr_BC) DEATH (Yr_BC) Scripture reference’s giving exact ages/ dates.
Joshua See Note for explanation for length of riegn 110 N/A 75 35 1477 BC 1442 BC? Josh 24:29
27 Othneil 8 yr captivity to Mesopt. 40 year freedom N/A 40 1442 BC? 1402 BC? Judges 3:ll (also see Judges 3:8)
Ehud/Sham. 18 yr captivity to Moab. 80 year freedom N/A 80 1402 BC? 1322 BC? Judges 3:30 (also see Judges 3:14)
28 Deborah Rules w/ Barak. 20 yr captivity to Canaan. N/A 40 1322 BC? 1282 BC? Judges 5:31 (see also Judges 4:2–3)
Gideon 7 yr captivity to Midian. 40 year freedom 40 1282 BC? 1242 BC? Judges 8:28 (See also Judges 6:1)
29 Abimelech Son of Gideon (Judg 9:18,21) N/A 3 1242 BC? 1239 BC? Judges 9:22 (16-55)
Tola Son of Puah of Issachar N/A 23 1239 BC? 1216 BC? Judges 10:1
Jair Of Gilead N/A 22 1216 BC? 1194 BC? Judges 10:3
30 Jephthah 18 year oppression by Philistines N/A 6 1194 BC? 1188 BC? Judges 12:7 (see also Judges 10:8)
Ibzan of Bethlehem (1 chron ) N/A 7 1188 BC? 1181 BC? Judges 12:8–9
Elon Of Zebulun N/A 10 1181 BC? 1171 BC? Judges 12:11–12
Abdon Son of Hillel, of Pirathon N/A 8 1171 BC? 1163 BC? Judges 12:13–14
31 Samson 40 year oppression by Philistines N/A 20 1163 BC? 1143 BC? Judges 15:20 (see also Judges 13:1)
Eli 40 is not civil reign shouldn’t be counted? 98 N/A 40 1143 BC? 1103 BC? 1 Samuel 4:15,18
32 Samuel Rules solely for a time and jointly with Saul 105 N/A 59? 7 1103 BC? 1096 BC? Josephus? (is 66 when he anoints Saul)
Saul Born 1062 BC? (40 yrs includes Samuel?) 60 N/A 20 40 1102 BC? 1060 BC? Acts 13:21
33 David Born 1032 BC? 70 33 40 1062 BC? 1022 BC? 2 Sam 5:4–5, 1 Chr. 29:27, 3:4
34 Solomon Temple lain in 1018 BC? ? 40 1022 BC? 982 BC? 2 Chr. 9:30, 1 Kings 11:42

 

Foundation of Temple is Lain: Solomon lays temple foundation in 4rth year of his reign in approximately 1018-1019 BC, and
480 years after the Exodus (1 Kings 6:1).

 

35 Rehoboam Fights against bro, Jeroboam all his life. 58 41 17 982 BC 965 BC 2 Chr. 12:13, 1 Kings 14:21
36 Abijam (a.k.a. Abijah) Wicked like his father 3 965 BC 962 BC 2 Chr. 13:2, 1 Kings 15:2
37 Asa Rightous 41 962 BC 921 BC 2 Chr. 16:13, 1 Kings 15:10
38 Jehoshaphat Rightous 60 28 35 25 921 BC 896 BC 2 Chr. 20:31, 1 Kings 22:42
39 Jehoram Wicked 40 18 32 8 896 BC 888 BC 2 Chr. 21:5,20, 2 Kings 8:17
40 Ahaziah (x) Chronicles says he started to reign at 42 23 22 22 1 888 BC 887 BC 2 Chr. 22:2 , 2 Kings 8:26
Athalia Wicked wife of Jehoram. Userps throne N/A 6 887 BC 881 BC 2 Chr. 22:12, 2 Kings 11:3
41 Joash Son of Ahaziah, saved by High Priest 47 22 7 40 881 BC 841 BC 2 Chr. 24:1, 2 Kings 12:1, 11:21
42 Amaziah . 54 38 25 29 841 BC 812 BC 2 Chr. 25:1, 2 Kings 14:2
43 Uzziah (a.k.a. Azariah) big earthquake during reign 68 43 16 52 812 BC 760 BC 2 Chr. 26:3, 2 Kings 15:2
44 Jotham . 41 21 25 16 760 BC 744 BC 2 Chr. 27:1,8, 2 Kings 15:33
45 Ahaziah (a.k.a Ahaz) 36 20 16 744 BC 728 BC 2 Chr. 28:1, 2 Kings 16:2
46 Hezekiah Sun goes back 15 degrees 54 42 25 29 728 BC 699 BC 2 Chr. 29:1, 2 Kings 18:2
47 Manasseh . 67 45 12 55 699 BC 644 BC 2 Chr. 33:1, 2 Kings 21:1
48 Amon (x) Murdered 24 16 22 2 644 BC 642 BC 2 Chr. 33:21 2 Kings 21:19
49 Josiah . 39 14 8 31 642 BC 611 BC 2 Chr. 34:1 2 Kings 22:1
50 Jehoiakim (a.ka. Eliakim) vassal to pharaoh 36 15 25 11 611 BC 600 BC 2 Chr. 36:5, 2 Kings 23:36
Zedekiah (a.k.a. Mattaniah) Johoiakim’s cousin 32 32 21 11 600 BC 589 BC 2 Chr. 36:11. 2 Kings 24:18

BOM Timeline: Babylonian Captivity. This puts us into the BOM and established written history. (See 1 Nephi 10:4)

correlation of all genealogical tables given in biblical/LDS scripture

correlation of all genealogical tables given in biblical/LDS scripture

BOLD FONT = Exact date is given in corresponding scripture references column.
REGULAR FONT = Date calculated using bold dates.
? = Uncertainty in date calculation

About General Date Accuracy

Dates accuracies range from high at the reign of Zedekiah (BOM), to +/- 10-20 yrs at Rehoboam, to poorer during the reign of the judges.  LDS revelation, given in D&C 77:6–7, 12 & D&C 88:108–110 emphasizes the mystical importance of the 7000 year cycle in the bible timeline (1 Ne. 13:40, Mormon 7:9.  see also the Jaredite genealogy and the book of Moses as well, as seen in my genealogical tables)

For Mormon’s, Book of Mormon verses in 1 Nephi 1:4 & 2:4 state that Nephi’s family left Jerusalem in the first year of the reign of Zedekiah. 1 Nephi 10:4 & 19:8 assure that this was in 600-601 BC. Thus we use this as our starting point, and count back through the kings of Judah until David. We can assume an error of a few years because dates for this period are only accurate to the year, not the month. Dates from Adam to David are counted forward from Adam with an arbitrary starting point of 4000 BC (D&C 76:11). At Solomon, where the two dating schemes meet, we amazingly find only a 15 year error.

Pre-‘Flood’ Notes

Joseph Smith’s Moses 1:41 would suggest that some aspect of the dates given in that book and Genesis were channeled much like modern texts like Oahspe or The Book of Mormon. This antediluvian chronology is actually given in seven different books of both LDS and non-LDS scripture (see genealogy chart). The channeled text “The Law of One”, suggests that life spans of 900 years were common during earth’s first precessional cycle after humans were brought to the planet 75,000 years ago.  Oahspe suggests that the sinking of Pan/Lemuria occured 50,000 years ago.  Of course, none of these channeled events can be verified scientifically.

Genesis 5 says that Noah had three sons but does not give specific years, only stating that he was 500 when they had all been born. Moses 8 clears this up by giving exact years for each son’s birth.

Patriarchal Era Notes

Nimrod is the great grandson of Noah (Noah-Ham-Cush-Nimrod) said to be born around the time of Salah. He is credited with building the city of Babel (Genesis 10:10) and the tower (Apocrypha). It’s climax and destruction (I.e. Brother of Jared leaving) seem strangely out of place given the suggested populations for those who hold to a global flood. Apocryphal sources state that Nimrod lived long enough to be a contemporary of Abraham.

All three of Terah’s children are mentioned as being born when Terah was 70 (Genesis 11:26)
Lectures on faith, gives another chronology on the patriarchs which is very similar but diverges as follows: (under construction)
Jacob was about 68 calculated from….
Levi, Kohath, and Amram’s age when they had their patriarchal son is not given.
Moses and Aaron were brothers, both born of Amram; Aaron was three years older than Moses.

Exodus Notes

Jacob entered Egypt at age 130 (Gen 37:9 gives exact age)

The Septuagint copy of Exodus 14:40 says Israel was in captivity for exactly 215 years. This date fits nicely with genealogies and would have spanned from the time Jacob/Israel and his sons entered Egypt until the Exodus. Jacob died in the year 1715 BC at age 147, so he lived in Egypt for 17 years before his death. This puts his entrance into Egypt in 1732 BC. We know the exodus was in 1517 BC, so these date match since 1732 – 1517 = 215 years.  However, Oahspe puts this event thousands of years earlier.

Exodus 12:40 says “Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, who dwelt in Egypt, was 430 years”. The septuagint and Samaritan copies correct this wording to say “Now the sojourning of the children of Israel, and of their fathers, which they sojourned in the land of Canaan and in the land of Egypt was 430 years”. (p156 skousen) Gen 15:13–16 substantiates that the septuagint correction is the proper wording.

Gen 15:13–16 says that Abraham’s seed would be “sojourners in a strange land for four generations” or “400 years”. This appears to be giving a rounded estimate. The 430 year version given in Ex. 12:40 and the septuagint are likely the more exact dates.

The exodus occurred 430 years from the time of Abraham’s vision in Canaan. (Gen 16:3, 15–16 suggests that this vision was shortly before Abraham married Hagar, which was 10 years before Abraham was 86) (430 year figure comes from Gal 3:17, Acts 7:6–7, & Gen 15:13, 16. This amount of time matches well with genealogies and other dates given) The 430 years could have also have started when Abraham had Ishmeal and left Canain, which would only change dates by a few years.

Acts 7:23 tells that Moses was 40 when he smote the Egyptian and fled. Acts 7:30 tells that Moses refuge in Midian for another full 40 years. Exodus 7:7 further supports this and says Moses was 80 years old when he returned to liberate Israel. From this we know that Moses was ordained to the priesthood by Jethro and bore both his two sons during this 40 year period between the ages of 40 and 80.

Clarke’s Bible commentary 1:883 suggests that Joshua was 57 at the time of the Exodus. After 40 years in the wilderness, this would put the death of Moses, and the beginning of his reign at age 97. [reigning 13 years]

Judges Notes

Dates given for the period of the Judges seem to be the most questionable or unreliable of all post Moses Bible periods. This is somewhat expected since it was a period of repeated captivity and apostasy. Adding up the dates given equals about 536 years, but with all the apparent rounded or estimated numbers it doesn’t seem very trustworthy. However, 1 kings 6:1 clears up the problem, telling that the Solomon’s temple began to be built in the fourth year of Solomon’s Reign and “480 years after the children of israel were come out of Egypt”. Which puts us at 1499 BC. But this still begs the question of whether this date points to the Exodus, or the entry into Israel. Since the record states “come out of Egypt” instead of “Come into Canaan” we will suppose it is referring to the exodus.

A second witness comes in Judges 11:26, where Jephthah says that Israel had been living in the coasts of Israel for 300 years. Which fits appropriately with the 480 year number given in kings, since Jephthah lived a bit more than half way through the period of the judges.

A third witness is given in Acts 13:20, which says God gave unto Israel “judges about the space of 450 years until Samuel the prophet”. Samuel began to reign about 80 years before Solomon began the temple, so this may conflict a bit with the 480 from Kings or it is likely that the periods of “servitude” listed in the Book of Judges are actually also included in the rounded numbers given. If not it seems quite a coincidence that the servitude periods add up to be very close to the number needed to make the dates match 480. (8+18+20+7+18+40=111, And 585?-111=474)

Either way we have a good ballpark figure for the Exodus of about 1499 BC (1019+480) for the Exodus. (many scholars use the date 1446 BC).

Kings Notes

The period of the Kings is the most recent found in the Old Testament, and given the intricate detail involved is probably quite accurate. Many of the names and dates given in Kings and Chronicles fall within secular recorded history and can be “scientifically” verified. However, it is this same fact which has led to some confusion as archeologists and historians find slightly conflicting dates. I believe the Bible is more accurate than these however, as historical dates often used calendars and counting systems which I believe were less accurate than that of the Hebrews. The Bible’s internal chronology for this period (calculated from the length of king’s reigns) gives 429 (433-4) years from the fall of Judah to the building of Solomon’s Temple.

The book of Mormon tells us Lehi left Jerusalem 600 years before the birth of Christ (1 Ne. 10:4), which it also tells us was during the 1st year of the reign of Zedekiah (1 Ne 1:4). So to get the date for the building of Solomon’s temple we add up reigns which total 433 years. And 433 minus 10 (Zedekiah lived about 10 years after Lehi left Jerusalem) minus 4 (Solomon started his temple in the 4rth year of his reign) gives us 419 years. So all together that’s 600+419 or 1019 BC (give or take a few years because kings reigns are not accurate to the month).

General Breakdown

The mystical significance of the biblical 7000 year cycle seems to be emphasized by the fact that the bible also gives dates covering each major epoch of time.

-Adam to Abraham
Approximately 2,048 years passed from the Fall to God’s vision to Abraham. (Moses 6:10–25, 7:68, 8:1-12, Gen. 5:3–32, 11:10-32, Lectures on Faith: Lecture Second.)
-Abraham to Exodus
Approximately 430 years passed from around the time of Abraham’s vision until the Exodus. (Exodus 12:40, Gen. 15:13–16)
-Exodus to Solomon
480 years passed from the Exodus to the building of the Temple of Solomon. (1 Kings 6:1)
-Solomon to Fall of Judah
Approximately 418 years passed from the building of the temple to the reign of Zedekiah and fall of Judah to Babylon (Period well documented in books of Kings & Chronicles)
-Zedekiah to birth of Christ
600 years passed from the time Lehi left Jerusalem (the first year of Zedekiah’s reign) to the time of Christ. (1 Nephi 1:4, 2:4)

2048+430+480+418+600= +/- 3976 Years from Adam to Christ

 

Related Pages
Biblical Chronology- Kings of Israel Line

Jaredite Chronology

Biblical Genealogy Tables

Joseph Smith Quotes on Book of Mormon Geography

This page is a compilation of quotes by and attributed to Joseph Smith relative to the geography of the Book of Mormon.
Despite some attempts to discredit the Prophet’s reliability on this matter, when taken as a whole, the descriptions he gives of Book of Mormon locations are very consistant. Many modern scholars try show that Joseph tried to learn the geography as time progressed. Lucy Mack Smith, the Prophet’s mother wrote:

“During our evening conversations, Joseph would occasionally give us some of the most amusing recitals that could be imagined. He would describe the ancient inhabitants of this continent, their dress, mode of traveling, and the animals upon which they rode; their cities, their buildings, with every particular; their mode of warfare; and also their religious worship. This he would do with as much ease, seemingly, as if he had spent his whole life among them.” (Lucy Mack Smith, History of Joseph Smith by His Mother [Salt Lake City: Stevens & Wallis, Inc., 1945], 83.)

This and many other quotes (including some below) make it appear that from early on Joseph knew much more about Book of Mormon geography than we currently have knowledge of.


Revelation given through Joseph Smith the Prophet to Oliver Cowdery, at Fayette, New York, September 1830. Calls Native Americans in North Central America “Lamanites.”

And now, behold, I say unto you that you shall go unto the Lamanites and preach my gospel unto them; and inasmuch as they receive thy teachings thou shalt cause my church to be established among them; and thou shalt have revelations, but write them not by way of commandment.

And now, behold, I say unto you that it is not revealed, and no man knoweth where the city Zion shall be built, but it shall be given hereafter. Behold, I say unto you that it shall be on the borders by the Lamanites.
(D&C 28:8–9)



Revelation given through Joseph Smith the Prophet to Parley P. Pratt and Ziba Peterson, October 1830. Calls Native Americans in North Central America “Lamanites.”

And that which I have appointed unto him is that he shall go with my servants, Oliver Cowdery and Peter Whitmer, Jun., into the wilderness among the Lamanites.
(D&C 32:2)



Revelation given through Joseph Smith the Prophet to Newel Knight, at Kirtland, Ohio, June 1831. Calls Native Americans in North Central America “Lamanites.”

And thus you shall take your journey into the regions westward, unto the land of Missouri, unto the borders of the Lamanites.
(D&C 54:8)



Article from Time and Seasons while edited by Joseph Smith. The Jaredites covered the entire continent and that the Lehites landed near the Isthmus of Darien.

From an extract from “Stephen’s Incidents of Travel in Central America,” it will be seen that the proof of the Nephites and Lamanites dwelling on this continent, according to the account in the Book of Mormon, is developing itself in a more satisfactory way than the most sanguine believer in that revelation could have anticipated. It certainly affords us a gratification that the world of mankind does not enjoy, to give publicity tosuch important developments of the remains and ruins of those mighty people.

When we read in the Book of Mormon that Jared and his brother came on to this continent from the confusion and scattering at the Tower, and lived here more than a thousand years, and covered the whole continent from sea to sea, with towns and cities; and that Lehi went down by the Red Sea to the great Southern Ocean, and crossed over to this land, and landed a little south of the Isthmus of Darien, and improved the country according to the word of the Lord, as a branch of the house of Israel, and then read such a goodly traditionary account as the one below, we can not but think the Lord has a hand in bringing to pass his strange act, and proving the Book of Mormon true in the eyes of all the people. The extract below, comes as near the real fact, as the four Evangelists do to the crucifixion of Jesus.-Surely “facts are stubborn things.” It will be as it ever has been, the world will prove Joseph Smith a true prophet by circumstantial evidence, in experiments, as they did Moses and Elijah.
(Joseph Smith, Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, selected and arranged by Joseph Fielding Smith [Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1976], 267. ; “FACTS ARE STUBBORN THINGS”, Times and Seasons, vol. 3 (November 1841-October 1842), Vol. 3:921-922.)



Entry in The History of the Church showing that Nephites and Lamanites lived in the Illinois area (where Joseph Smith was traveling with Zion’s Camp).

During our travels we visited several of the mounds which had been thrown up by the ancient inhabitants of this country-Nephites, Lamanites, etc., and this morning I went up on a high mound, near the river, accompanied by the brethren. From this mound we could overlook the tops of the trees and view the prairie on each side of the river as far as our vision could extend, and the scenery was truly delightful.

On the top of the mound were stones which presented the appearance of three altars having been erected one above the other, according to the ancient order; and the remains of bones were strewn over the surface of the ground. The brethren procured a shovel and a hoe, and removing the earth to the depth of about one foot, discovered the skeleton of a man, almost entire, and between his ribs the stone point of a Lamanitish arrow, which evidently produced his death. Elder Burr Riggs retained the arrow. The contemplation of the scenery around us produced peculiar sensations in our bosoms; and subsequently the visions of the past being opened to my understanding by the Spirit of the Almighty, I discovered that the person whose skeleton was before us was a white Lamanite, a large, thick-set man, and a man of God. His name was Zelph. He was a warrior and chieftain under the great prophet Onandagus, who was known from the Hill Cumorah, or eastern sea to the Rocky mountains. The curse was taken from Zelph, or, at least, in part-one of his thigh bones was broken by a stone flung from a sling, while in battle, years before his death. He was killed in battle by the arrow found among his ribs, during the last great struggle of the Lamanites and Nephites.
(Joseph Smith, History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 7 vols., introduction and notes by B. H. Roberts [Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1932-1951], 2: 79 – 80.)



Entry in The History of the Church showing that Nephites and Lamanites lived near Adam-ondi-Ahman in North Central America.

Saturday, 19.-This morning we struck our tents and formed a line of march, crossing Grand River at the mouth of Honey Creek and Nelson’s Ferry. Grand River is a large, beautiful, deep and rapid stream, during the high waters of Spring, and will undoubtedly admit of navigation by steamboat and other water craft. At the mouth of Honey Creek is a good landing. We pursued our course up the river, mostly through timber, for about eighteen miles, when we arrived at Colonel Lyman Wight’s home. He lives at the foot of Tower Hill (a name I gave the place in consequence of the remains of an old Nephite altar or tower that stood there), where we camped for the Sabbath.
(Joseph Smith, History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 7 vols., introduction and notes by B. H. Roberts [Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1932-1951], 3: 34.)



On September 8, 1841, Bishop Bernhisel wrote the Prophet that he was sending “a copy of Stephen’s Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan.” The Prophet’s response shows that Lehites lived in Central America.

Nauvoo November 16, 1841

Dear Sir

I received your kind present by the hand of Er Woodruff & feel myself under many obligations for this mark of your esteem & friendship which to me is the more interesting as it unfolds & developes many things that are of great importance to this generation & corresponds with & supports the testimony of the Book of Mormon; I have read the volumes with the greatest interest & pleasure & must say that of all histories that have been written pertaining to the antiquities of this country it is the most correct luminous & comprihensive.-

In regard to the land referred to by you I would simply state that I have lands both in and out of the City some of which I hold deeds for and others bonds for deeds when you come which I hope will be as soon as convenient you can make such a selection from among those as shall best meet with your needs & feelings. In gratefull remembrance of your kindness I remain your affectionate Brother in the bonds of the Everlasting Covenant

Joseph Smith

To Dr Bernhisel
Dr Bernhisel care of
Lucian R. Foster
No 13 Oliver St
New York
(Joseph Smith, The Personal Writings of Joseph Smith, compiled and edited by Dean C. Jessee [Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1984], 501 – 502.)



From the Wentworth Letter–shows that Moroni instructed Joseph on many aspects relating to Book of Mormon geography.

On the evening on the 21st of September, A.D. 1823, while I was praying unto God, and endeavoring to exercise faith in the precious promises of Scripture, on a sudden a light like that of day, only of a far purer and more glorious appearance and brightness, burst into the room, indeed the first sight was as though the house was filled with consuming fire; the appearance produced a shock that affected the whole body; in a moment a personage stood before me surrounded with a glory yet greater than that with which I was already surrounded. This messenger proclaimed himself to be an angel of God, sent to bring the joyful tidings that the covenant which God made with ancient Israel was at hand to be fulfilled, that the preparatory work for the second coming of the Messiah was speedily to commence; that the time was at hand for the Gospel in all its fullness to be preached in power, unto all nations that a people might be prepared for the Millennial reign. I was informed that I was chosen to be an instrument in the hands of God to bring about some of His purposes in this glorious dispensation.

I was also informed concerning the aboriginal inhabitants of this country and shown who they were, and from whence they came; a brief sketch of their origin, progress, civilization, laws, governments, of their righteousness and iniquity, and the blessings of God being finally withdrawn from them as a people, was made known unto me; I was also told where were deposited some plates on which were engraven an abridgment of the records of the ancient Prophets that had existed on this continent. The angel appeared to me three times the same night and unfolded the same things. After having received many visits from the angels of God unfolding the majesty and glory of the events that should transpire in the last days, on the morning of the 22nd of September, A.D. 1827, the angel of the Lord delivered the records into my hands.

These records were engraven on plates which had the appearance of gold, each plate was six inches wide and eight inches long, and not quite so thick as common tin. They were filled with engravings, in Egyptian characters, and bound together in a volume as the leaves of a book, with three rings running through the whole. The volume was something near six inches in thickness, a part of which was sealed. The characters on the unsealed part were small, and beautifully engraved. The whole book exhibited many marks of antiquity in its construction, and much skill in the art of engraving. With the records was found a curious instrument, which the ancients called “Urim and Thummim,” which consisted of two transparent stones set in the rim of a bow fastened to a breast plate. Through the medium of the Urim and Thummim I translated the record by the gift and power of God.

In this important and interesting book the history of ancient America is unfolded, from its first settlement by a colony that came from the Tower of Babel, at the confusion of languages to the beginning of the fifth century of the Christian Era. We are informed by these records that America in ancient times has been inhabited by two distinct races of people. The first were called Jaredites, and came directly from the Tower of Babel. The second race came directly from the city of Jerusalem, about six hundred years before Christ. They were principally Israelites, of the descendants of Joseph. The Jaredites were destroyed about the time that the Israelites came from Jerusalem, who succeeded them in the inheritance of the country. The principal nation of the second race fell in battle towards the close of the fourth century. The remnant are the Indians that now inhabit this country. This book also tells us that our Savior made His appearance upon this continent after His resurrection; that He planted the Gospel here in all its fulness, and richness, and power, and blessing; that they had Apostles, Prophets, Pastors, Teachers, and Evangelists; the same order, the same priesthood, the same ordinances, gifts, powers, and blessings, as were enjoyed on the eastern continent, that the people were cut off in consequence of their transgressions, that the last of their prophets who existed among them was commanded to write an abridgment of their prophecies, history, &c, and to hide it up in the earth, and that it should come forth and be united with the Bible for the accomplishment of the purposes of God in the last days. For a more particular account I would refer to the Book of Mormon, which can be purchased at Nauvoo, or from any of our Traveling Elders.
(Joseph Smith, History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 7 vols., introduction and notes by B. H. Roberts [Salt Lake City: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1932-1951], 4: 537 – 538.)



An epistle from Joseph Smith the Prophet to The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, dated at Nauvoo, Illinois, September 6, 1842. Shows that the Book of Mormon was burried in the Hill Cumorah.

Now, what do we hear in the gospel which we have received? A voice of gladness! A voice of mercy from heaven; and a voice of truth out of the earth; glad tidings for the dead; a voice of gladness for the living and the dead; glad tidings of great joy. How beautiful upon the mountains are the feet of those that bring glad tidings of good things, and that say unto Zion: Behold, thy God reigneth! As the dews of Carmel, so shall the knowledge of God descend upon them!

And again, what do we hear? Glad tidings from Cumorah! Moroni, an angel from heaven, declaring the fulfilment of the prophets-the book to be revealed. A voice of the Lord in the wilderness of Fayette, Seneca county, declaring the three witnesses to bear record of the book! The voice of Michael on the banks of the Susquehanna, detecting the devil when he appeared as an angel of light! The voice of Peter, James, and John in the wilderness between Harmony, Susquehanna county, and Colesville, Broome county, on the Susquehanna river, declaring themselves as possessing the keys of the kingdom, and of the dispensation of the fulness of times!
(D&C 128:19–20)



Article from Time and Seasons while edited by Joseph Smith which contained a large portion from Stephen’s Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas, and Yucatan. Shows that Lehites lived in Central America.

Let us turn our subject, however, to the Book of Mormon, where these wonderful ruins of Palenque are among the mighty works of the Nephites:-and the mystery is solved.

On the 72d page of the third and fourth edition of the Book of Mormon it reads as follows: And it came to pass that we began to prosper exceedingly, and to multiply in the land. And I, Nephi, did take the sword of Laban, and after the manner of it did make many swords, lest by any means the people who were now called Lamanites, should come upon us and destroy us: for I knew their hatred towards me and my children, and those who were called my people. And I did teach my people, to build buildings: and to work in all manner of wood, and of iron, and of copper, and of brass, and of steel, and of gold, and of silver, and of precious ores, which were in great abundance. And I, Nephi, did build a temple; and I did construct it after the manner of the temple of Solomon, save it were not built of so many precious things: for they were not to be found upon the land; wherefore, it could not be built like un-to Solomon’s temple. But the manner of the construction was like unto the temple of Solomon; and the workmanship thereof was exceeding fine. And on page 280-1 is a full description of the Isthmus.

Mr. Stephens’ great developements of antiquities are made bare to the eyes of all the people by reading the history of the Nephites in the Book of Mormon. They lived about the narrow neck of land, which now embraces Central America, with all the cities that can be found. Read the destructionof cities at the crucifixion of Christ, pages 459-60. Who could have dreamed that twelve years would have developed such incontrovertible testimonyto the Book of Mormon? surely the Lord worketh and none can hinder.
(Extract, Times and Seasons, vol. 3 (November 1841-October 1842), Vol. 3 No. 21 September 1, 1842 915.)



Article from Time and Seasons while edited by Joseph Smith as a follow-up to the above quote. Shows that Lehites lived in Central America.

Since our ‘Extract’ was published from Mr. Stephens’ ‘Incidents of Travel,’ &c., we have found another important fact relating to the truth ofthe Book of Mormon. Central America, or Guatimala, is situated north of the Isthmus of Darien and once embraced several hundred miles of territoryfrom north to south.-The city of Zarahemla, burnt at the crucifixion of the Savior, and rebuilt afterwards, stood upon this land as will be seenfrom the following words in the book of Alma:-‘And now it was only the distance of a day and a half’s journey for a Nephite, on the line Bountiful,and the land Desolation, from the east to the west sea; and thus the land of Nephi, and the land of Zarahemla was nearly surrounded by water: there being a small neck of land between the land northward and the land southward.’ [See Book of Mormon 3d edition, p. 280-81.]

It is certainly a good thing for the excellency and veracity, of the divine authenticity of the Book of Mormon, that the ruins of Zarahemla have been found where the Nephites left them: and that a large stone with engravings upon it, as Mosiah said; and a ‘large round stone, with the sides sculptured in hieroglyphics,’ as Mr. Stephens has published, is also among the left remembrances of the, (to him,) lost and unknown. We are not going to declare positively that the ruins of Quirigua are those of Zarahemla, but when the land and the stones, and the books tell the story so plain, we are of opinion, that it would require more proof than the Jews could bring to prove the disciples stole the body of Jesus from the tomb, to prove that the ruins of the city in question, are not one of those referred to in the Book of Mormon.

It may seem hard for unbelievers in the mighty works of God, to give credit to such a miraculous preservation of the remains, ruins, records and reminiscences of a branch of the house of Israel: but the elements are eternal, and intelligence is eternal, and God is eternal, so that the very hairs of our heads are all numbered. It may be said of man he was and is, and is not; and of his works the same, but the Lord was and is, and is to come and his works never end; and he will bring every thing into judgment whether it be good, or whether it be evil; yea, every secret thing, and they shall be revealed upon the house tops. It will not be a bad plan to compare Mr. Stephens’ ruined cities with those in the Book of Mormon: light cleaves to light, and facts are supported by facts. The truth injures no one, and so we make another
(Zarahemla., Times and Seasons, vol. 3 (November 1841-October 1842), Vol. 3 No. 22 September 15, 1842 927.)



Recollections of a conversation with Joseph Smith by Mosiah Hancock, a close friend of the Prophet. Shows that the Nephites lost their power in the south western United States/north Mexico.

The next day the Prophet came to our home and stopped in our carpenter shop and stood by the turning lathe. I went and got my map for him. “Now”, he said, “I will show you the travels of this people”. He then showed our travels through Iowa, and said, “Here you will make a place for the winter; and here you will travel west until you come to the valley of the Great Salt Lake! You will build cities to the North and to the South, and to the East and to the West; and you will become a great and wealthy people in that land. But, the United States will not receive you with the laws which God desires you to live, and you will have to go to where the Nephites lost their power. They worked in the United Order for 166 years, and the Saints have got to become proficient in the laws of God before they can meet the Lord Jesus Christ, or even the city of Enoch”. He said we will not travel the shape of the horse shoe for there we will await the action of the government. Placing his finger on the map, I should think about where Snowflake, Arizona is situated, or it could have been Mexico, he said, “The government will not receive you with the laws that God designed you to live, and those who are desirous to live the laws of God will have to go South. You will live to see men arise in power in the Church who will seek to put down your friends and the friends of our Lord and Savior, Jesus Christ. Many will be hoisted because of their money and the worldly learning which they seem to be in possession of; and many who are the true followers of our Lord and Savior will be cast down because of their poverty. There will be two great political parties in this country. One will be called the Republican, and the other the Democrat party. These two parties will go to war and out of these two parties will spring another party which will be the Independent American Party. The United States will spend her strength and means warring in foreign lands until other nations will say, “Let’s divide up the lands of the United States”, then the people of the U. S. will unite and swear by the blood of their fore-fathers, that the land shall not be divided. Then the country will go to war, and they will fight until one half of the U. S. army will give up, and the rest will continue to struggle. They will keep on until they are very ragged and discouraged, and almost ready to give up–when the boys from the mountains will rush forth in time to save the American Army from defeat and ruin. And they will say, ‘Brethren, we are glad you have come; give us men, henceforth, who can talk with God’. Then you will have friends, but you will save the country when it’s liberty hangs by a hair, as it were”.
(Mosiah Hancock, Autobiography, BYU Special Collections, Writings of Early Latter-day Saints 28.)



Recollections of a conversation with Joseph Smith by his mother, Lucy Mack Smith. Shows that the Hill Cumorah was in the New York area.

The fact was I had learned to be a little cautious about matters with regard to Joseph, for I was accustomed to see him look as he did on thatoccasion and I could not easily mistake the cause thereof.

Presently he smiled and said in a calm tone, “I have taken the severest chastisement that I have ever had in my life.”

My husband, supposing that it was from some of the neighbors, was quite angry and observed, “I would like to know what business anybody has tofind fault with you!”

“Stop, father, stop,” said Joseph, “it was the angel of the Lord. As I passed by the hill of Cumorah, where the plates are, the angel met me and said that I had not been engaged enough in the work of the Lord; that the time had come for the record to be brought forth; and that I must be up and doing and set myself about the things which God had commanded me to do. But, father, give yourself no uneasiness concerning the reprimand which I have received, for I now know the course that I am to pursue, so all will be well.”

It was also made known to him at this interview that he should make another effort to obtain the plates, on the twenty-second of the following September, but this he did not mention to us at that time.
(Lucy Mack Smith, History of Joseph Smith by His Mother [Salt Lake City: Stevens & Wallis, Inc., 1945], 100.)



Statement some believe the be by Joseph Smith recorded by Frederick G. Williams and originally published in 1879 by Orson Pratt. Shows that Lehites landed in Chile though, of questionable authenticity.

The course that Lehi and his company traveled from Jerusalem to the place of their destination:

They traveled nearly a south, southeast direction until they came to the nineteenth degree of north latitude; then, nearly east to the Sea of Arabia, then sailed in a southeast direction, and landed on the continent of South America, in Chile, thirty degrees south latitude.
(Joseph Smith, Discourses of the Prophet Joseph Smith, compiled by Alma P. Burton [Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1977], 269. ; Franklin D. Richards and James A. Little, Compendium of the Doctrines of the Gospel [Salt Lake City: Deseret Book Co., 1925], 289.)


Book of Mormon Geography Scriptures


[A] [B] [C] [D]
[E] [F] [G] [H] [I] [J] [K] [L] [M] [N] [O] [P] [Q] [R] [S] [T] [U] [V] [W] [X] [Y] [Z]

 

[A] Aaron, city/cities of
Alma 8:13; 50:14

Ablom
Ether 9:3

Agosh
Ether 14:15-16

Akish, wilderness of
Ether 14:3-4, 14

Alma, valley of
Mosiah 24:20, 21

Ammonihah, city of
Alma 8:6-13, 16-18; chs. 9-14; 15:1, 15; 16:2-3, 9, 11; 25:2; 49:3, 10-11

Amnihu, hill
Alma 2:15

Amulon, land of
Mosiah 23:31; 24:1

Angola, city of
Mormon 2:4

Ani-Anti
Alma 21:11

Antionum, land of
Alma 31:3; 43:5, 22

Antiparah, city of
Alma 56:14, 31-34; 57:1-4

Antipas, mount
Alma 47:7, 10

Antum, land of
Mormon 1:3

[B] Boaz, city of
Mormon 4:20-21

Bountiful, city/land of
Alma 22:29-33; 27:22; 50:11, 32; 51:28, 30-32; 52:9, 15,17-18, 39; 53:3-4; 55:26; 63:5; Helaman 1:23, 28; 4:6;


5:14; 3 Nephi 3:23; 11:1

[C] Comnor, hill
Ether 14:28

Corihor, land/valley of
Ether 14:27-28

Cumeni, city of
Alma 56:13-14; 57:7-8, 12, 23, 31, 34

Cumorah, land/hill of
Mormon 6:2-6, 11; 8:2

[D] Desolation, city of
Mormon 3:7; 4:2, 3, 8, 13, 19

Desolation, land of
Alma 50:34; 63:5; 3 Nephi 3:23; Mormon 3:5; 4:1-2, 19; Ether 7:6

[E] Ephraim, hill
Ether 7:9

[G] Gad, city of
3 Nephi 9:10

Gadiani, city of
3 Nephi 9:8

Gadiomnah, city of
3 Nephi 9:8

Gid, city of
Alma 51:26; 55:7-26

Gideon, city/land/valley of
Alma 2:20-26; 6:7-8:1; 13:15; 17:1; 30:21; 61:5; 62:3-6

Gilgal, city/valley of
3 Nephi 9:6; Ether 13:27-30

Gimgimno, city of
3 Nephi 9:8

[H] Helam, city/land of
Mosiah 23:3-4, 25-26, 29, 35, 37-39; 27:16

Hermounts, wilderness of
Alma 2:37

Heshlon, plains of
Ether 13:2-8

[I] Ishmael, land of
Alma 17:19-21; 20:14-15; 21:20-21; 22:4; 23:7-9; 24:5; 25:1

[J] Jacob, city of
3 Nephi 9:8

Jacobugath, city of
3 Nephi 9:9

Jashon, city/land of
Mormon 2:16-17

Jershon, land of
Alma 27:22-24, 26; 28:1, 8; 30:1, 19-21; 35:6, 13-14; 43:4, 18, 25

Jerusalem, city/land
Alma 21:1-4; 24:1; 3 Nephi 9:7

Jordan, city of
Mormon 5:3

Josh, city of
3 Nephi 9:10

Joshua, land of
Mormon 2:6

Judea, city of
Alma 56:9, 15, 18, 57; 57:11

[L] Laman, city of
3 Nephi 9:10

land northward
Alma 22:32

land southward
Alma 22:32

Lehi, city/land of
Alma 50:15, 25-28, 36; 56:24, 26; 62:30; Helaman 6:10

Lehi-Nephi, city/land of
Mosiah 7:1-4, 21; 9:1-6, 8

Lemuel, city of
Alma 23:12-13

[M] Manti, city/land of
Alma 16:6-7; 17:1; 22:27; 43:22, 24-54; 56:14; 58:26-30; 59:6

Melek, land of
Alma 8:3-4; 35:13; 45:18

Middoni, land of
Alma 20:2-3, 4-7, 14-15, 28-30; 21:12-13, 18; 23:10

Midian, land of
Alma 24:5

Minon, land of
Alma 2:24

Mocum, city of
3 Nephi 9:7

Moriancumer, land of
Ether 2:13

Morianton, city/land of
Alma 50:25, 36; 51:26; 55:33; 59:4-5

Moriantum
Moroni 9:9-10

Mormon, placelwaters/forest of
Mosiah 18:4-16, 30-35; 25:18; 26:15; Alma 5:3

Moron, land of
Ether 7:5-6, 17; 14:6, 11

Moroni, city/land of
Alma 50:13; 51:22-24; 59:5; 62:25, 32-34; 3 Nephi 8:9; 9:4

Moronihah, city of
3 Nephi 8:10, 25; 9:5

Mulek, city/land of
Alma 51:26; 52:2, 16-26; 53:2, 6; Helaman 6:10

[N] narrow neck of land
Alma 22:32; 63:5

narrow pass
Alma 50:34; 52:9; Mormon 2:29; 3:5

Nehor, city of
Ether 7:9

Nephi, city of
Mosiah 9:15; 21:1, 12; Alma 23:11; 47:20; 47:31

Nephi, land of
2 Nephi 5:8; Omni 1:12, 27-30; Words of Mormon 1:13; Mosiah 7:6-9; chs. 9-22; 28:1-9; 29:3; Alma 2:24; chs. 17-26; 27:1, 20; 28:8; 47:1, 20; 50:8; 53:6; 58:38; Helaman 4:12; 5:20

Nephihah, city/land/plains of
Alma 50:14; 51:24-26, 59:5-11; 62:14, 18-26, 30

Noah, city/land of
Alma 49:12-15

[O] Ogath
Ether 15:10

Ornner, city of
Alma 51:26

Onidah
Alma 47:5

Onidah, hill
Alma 32:4

Onihah, city of
3 Nephi 9:7

[R] Ramah, hill
Ether 15:11

Riplah, hill
Alma 43:31, 35

Ripliancum, waters of
Ether 15:8

[S] Sebus, waters of
Alma 17:26, 34; 18:7; 19:20

Shem, city/land of
Mormon 2:20-21

Shemlon, land of
Mosiah 10:7; 11:12; 19:6; 20:1-5; 24:1; Alma 23:12

Sherrizah
Moroni 9:16-17

Sherrizah, tower of
Moroni 9:7

Shilom, city/land of
Mosiah 7:7, 21; 9:6, 8, 14; 10:8, 20; 11:12-13; 22:8-11; 24:1; Alma 23:12

Shim, hill
Mormon 13; 4:23; Ether 9:3

Shimnilom, city of
Alma 23:8, 12

Shurr, valley of
Ether 14:28

Sidom, land of
Alma 2:15, 3, 11, 13-17

Sidon, river
Alma 2:15, 34; 4:4; 22:29

Siron, land of
Alma 39:3

[T] Teancum, city of
Mormon 4:3-8, 14

[Z] Zarahemla, city of
Alma 2:26; 5:2; 6:1-7; 7:3-5; 8:1; 31:6; 56:25; 60:1; Helaman 1:18-33; 7:10; 13:12; 3 Nephi 8:8, 24; 9:3; 4 Nephi 1:8

Zarahemla, land of
Omni 1:12-13, 24, 28; Mosiah 1:1, 18; 2:4; 7:9, 13-14; 8:1-8, 14; 9:2; 21:24-26; 22:11-13; 24:25; 25:19-23; 27:35; 29:44; Alma 2:15-25; 4:1; 5:1; 15:18; 16:1; 22:32; 27:5-20; 28:1; 35:14; 59:4; 60:30; 62:6-7; Helaman 3:31; 4:5; 5:16-19; 6:4; 7:1; 13:2; 3 Nephi 3:22-23; Mormon 1:6

Zeezrom, city of
Alma 56:13-14

Zerin, mount
Ether 13:30