In D&C 52:14 we are told that God has given us “a pattern in all things, that ye may not be deceived”. One type or pattern that is helpful in understanding the role of the Gentile Christian Church in relation to Israel and the Great Apostasy is the pattern or type between the Times of Israel (from Abraham to Christ) and the Times of the Gentiles (from Christ to near present). By looking at the similarities in these two times and organizations one can see how God’s plan changes through time, and how the Gentile Church was led by God through its periods of Apostasy in the same way that the House of Israel was led by God through theirs. Both groups (Israel & Christianity) has the higher law and priesthood taken away after about 500 years of existence. Both groups were made captive to secular empires due to apostasy. Both groups exhibited similar phases of church and state rule. God used both groups to colonize and civilize the world during a colonial era spanning from one of their darkest periods to the end of the era. See more details in the article Redefining the LDS (Protestant) View of the “Great Apostasy”
Abraham & Patriarchal Period (2000-1730 BC) = Apostolic Period (33- 300 AD)
God established the covenant with Abraham, Isaac & Jacob, blessing the nations of the earth through the seed of Jacob who were the twelve tribes of Israel. This was a type of Peter, James & John who blessed the earth through the seed or converts of the twelve apostles of the lamb. Just as the period from Abraham to Joseph in Egypt was a formative period wherein the seed of Abraham suffered from many wars famines and hardships, so also was the apostolic era up until Constantine a formative period where the early saints and bishops suffered much under the persecution of Rome.
Melchizedek, Abraham & Esais (~2000 BC) = Christ, Peter & Paul (~34 AD)
Just as Christ gave the priesthood separately to Peter personally, and then later to Paul through angelic visitation (see Gal 3), so also does the Bible and Doctrine & Covenants teach that Melchizedek gave the priesthood to Abraham, but a man name “Esaias”, who lived “in the days of Abraham, received the priesthood separately “under the hand of God” (D&C 84:7–14). It was this separate priesthood which was then passed on through the Midianites to Moses and the Israelite’s in the wilderness; in a way similar to what many have argued of Paul’s (not Peter’s) priesthood being the primary authority line among the Greek and Orthodox Christian churches. The biblical parallels between Melchizedek and Christ are too numerous to mention here. Any simple internet search will return scores of articles.
Joseph, Chancellor of Egypt (1718 BC) = Constantine Emperor of Rome (313 AD)
Just as Pharaoh saved the Egyptian Empire (& the whole region of the world) by promoting Joseph and following his council, so Constantine saved the Roman Empire (& that whole region of the world) by promoting Christianity and implementing its teachings. Also as Pharaoh allowed Joseph to bring his rebellious brothers (the twelve tribes) who had sold him, into Egypt to save and promote them…. so Constantine brought together the (somewhat corrupt) twelve tribes (bishops of the twelve apostles) into Constantinople, saving and promoting them … Just as Joseph worked behind the scenes to save Egypt and Israel, giving Pharaoh the glory in Egyptian history, so is it quite likely that some humble Christian worked behind the scenes to convert Constantine to the faith of his mother and persuade him to bring salvation to “famine-ridden” (persecuted) Christians. Constantine truly was the ‘Joseph or Pharaoh’ of the Gentile age.
Israel in Egypt (1732-1517 BC) = The Church in Constantinople/Roman Empire (313-528? AD)
Just as Israel spent 215 years in Egypt, a period which started very well for Israel, but in the end turned into captivity, necessitating great plague and destruction on Egypt to facilitate their delivery; So also the church at first prospered in Constantinople & The Roman Empire but with time this marriage of church and state became a captivity, requiring great plague and the fall of the Roman Empire to facilitate the churches escape from corruption.
Likewise it is imaginable that the children of Israel probably began to fall quite quickly into idolatry and partake of the sins of Egypt after coming there and being given privileged status under Joseph. They drank in the religion and idolatry of Egypt so much that by the time God sent Moses to deliver them from both physical and spiritual slavery, many did not want to leave and would not give up their idolatry (mixing Egyptian religion and temple rites into their own culture and religion). In fact we are told in the Bible and Book of Ben Kathryn that Israel never did give up the idolatry of the nations or even properly keep the laws and feasts revealed to Moses for the entire thousand years from Joshua to Ezra. Likewise, the church once brought into and promoted by Rome immediately fell into idolatry (mixing Christianity with Roman religion and Mithriaic Romanized rites) and paganism which they did not give up until the reformation. Much like Ezra, it took Luther to get the church to remember the Law of Christ and begin to tone down their worship of idols, Saints, and Roman culture.
When Constantine founded and brought the church into Constantinople he declared “…the church bishop will be second to Rome…”. However, in time this decree was ignored and Constantinople quickly became the head of the Church, facilitating the close alliance of Church and State, and bringing with it the corruption and captivity which always follows such an unholy alliance. (Note: This problem did not exist in Rome previous to Constantine, because although the head of the empire, Rome persecuted the church, adding to its purity and fortitude.) It was not until around 533 that Emperor Justinian once again declared the Roman Holy See as the highest ecclesiastical authority. It can be debated whether Justinian’s acts would put him more in line of Moses in liberating the Church, or Pharaoh in holding it hostage to State control. In any event, it was God’s hand in sending the Plague of Justinian in 541 which sufficiently devastated the population of the Roman empire (especially in the east) as to effectively bring about it’s final fall and the wholesale liberation of the Church from it’s control (for a time).
Moses (1517 BC) = Justinian (534 AD)
It is very interesting the way Justinian seems to fit as a parallel for Moses. Indeed even Justinian perceived himself to be a modern ‘Moses’ in his publication of the Corpus Juris Civilis (Body of Civil Law). This law was coincidentally published in 534 AD, 1000 years before Luther published the ‘Luther Bible’, bringing the people back to the true Law of Moses. The Corpus Juris Civilus was indeed also very similar to the Law of Moses, in that it reaffirmed the Orthodox Christian church as the only true religion (and the only state religion), it gave harsh laws concerning non Christians, arians, pagans and Jews, etc… Luther also appears to have been a great student of Justinian and both read and quotes extensively from his works. In fact the Justinian Code was the basis for German Law during the time of Luther as it had been the Basis of Law for the Holy Roman Empire throughout it’s existence.
If Justinian is indeed typified by Moses, the consequences would seem to persuade us that the close relationship of church and state by the medieval catholic church were not ungodly, but were in fact the will of God. Just as it had been god’s will for Israel to be HIS special people among the heathen nations of the Gentiles. There is more involved here, of course, because church and state were not totally united in Israel (king different from high priest), but the state was to follow the laws/ councils of the church. Of course this is how it was during the medieval period as well, the kings were different from the pope, but the church held a very large amount of influence over the kings. Justinian was a self proclaimed ‘Moses’ of the Gentile age.
Joshua (1477 BC) = Belisarius (533 AD)
Belisarius was Justinian’s main general, who enlarged the empire by 45% during his campaigns. He defeated the ostrogoth in Ravenna, captured all of Italy, defeated the Vandals in Carthage… He was an orthodox Christian and did much to defeat arianism including deposing the Pope Silverius (who was installed by the Goths) with Vigilius.
Aaron/Eleazer = Pope Gregory I (the great)
Reading about Gregory is a breath of fresh air. He appears to have been a very benevolent good-hearted man. He aids in removing the Church from both Roman and Constantinople’s “Bondage”. He further exerted the primacy of the Holy See in Rome and perhaps more importantly, led the people to accept it by his goodness and popularity. He also served in Constantinople for a time under Justinian before returning to Rome and making many needed reforms. He also was a bit of a military leader and appears to have led in justice. Read about him in the catholic dictionary http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06780a.htm
Reign of the Judges = Post Roman Empire Church
Just as Israel entered a new period of fragmentation, idolatry, war/captivity and freedom from a king, so after the collapse of the Roman Empire the church both suffered and proffered from a period of fragmentation, conflict and idolatry. Reading the history of the papacy from Gregory to at least the split of the church you see how absolutely degenerate it, at times, became. The papacy became a puppet to the warring papal states and the pope was often a murderer or moral degenerate. This truly was a good parallel to an era where Israel was in constant bondage because of their wickedness.
Eli (1143)/Saul/David/Solomon (1014) begin the Empire of Israel = Charlemagne (800-814)/ Louis the Pious (814-840)/Sons? (Institution of the Holy Roman Empire)
[note: Newton’s “3 kings” were Charles Martel/Pepin the Short/ Charlemagne -all are father son, may be the better type?…]
Just as Israel is unified and made into a great empire by Saul & David, so is the Holy Roman Empire begun by reign of Charlemagne and Otto I. Just as Saul was crowned King by the High Priest Samuel, so was Charlemagne made emperor (Imperator Augustus) by Pope Leo III
Likewise “Charlemagne restored an equal balance between emperor and pope”, just as David taught that Obedience is better than the sacrifice of flesh etc…
However, This parallels bothers me as being anachronistic. It is just too early to work, and Charlemagne’s empire splits into Germany & France which I don’t think are types of Judah & Israel. Perhaps it is a sub-type or something else…? I should Look for a better type…perhaps it is Popes, or emperors at Constantinople. whoever they should be coronated by the religious leader, and lead to the division of the church. perhaps The Davidic era and kings of Israel does not have a type in the Gentile church. perhaps this is another aspect that exists only for the house of Israel, just as prophets who talk to God.
Temple of Solomon = Consolidation of the Catholic Church (Holy See)
The gentile church did not have a temple or tabernacle as did Israel. That institution was and is for Israel alone. However, the Gentile church regarded (as is true) the words of Christ’s stating that God can not be housed in stone and that the Body of Christ is the true Temple of God, and that the Church is in fact the living Body of Christ. Therefore, symbology and typology regarding the temple must be applied to the state and being of the Church; with special emphasis placed on the consolidation and leadership of the Church. Thus the destruction of the temple of Israel typified later destruction of faith in the Holy Roman See or consolidation and authority of the the Church and its Rome based leadership. This symbol seems quite fitting, as it was the temple that gave the nation of Israel its feeling of cohesiveness and divinely led nationality and authority.
Split of Northern/Israel and Southern Kingdom/Judah (989 BC?) = The Great Schism (1065 AD)
After the building of the great temple, Solomon foolishly causes the rebellion of the Northern Kingdom, which contains the greater part of the tribes of Israel (10 of them). Likewise, the foolish Pope Leo institutes the radical “Gregorian reforms” which state the Pope to be more powerful than any state and should have power to dispose Emperors. His reforms are of good intention but very prideful. They restate the Roman Popes preeminence over any other bishop (including Constantinople) and lash out against iconoclasm, an issue that leads the split off of the Eastern Orthodox Church (the greater part of the Christian church at the time).
The nature of this split is also of importance. The Northern Kingdom’s desire for more freedom actually leads to a kingdom of greater totalitarianism and despotism. Even after its destruction and absorption into Assyria, the Northern realms of Babylon/Persia/Macedonia and Rome tend to have more despotic rulers than Judah and Egypt ever did. — The same is true of the Byzantine or Eastern Orthodox Church. In its desire for greater theological freedom and mysticism it seems to breed more warlocks, magicians and imperial despots (especially in Russia).
Thus in this parallel, The Northern Kingdom and the Northern Empires (Babylon/Persia/Macedonia/Rome) are reborn in the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Eastern imperial phases of the Mongols and Russia. The Southern Kingdom and Egypt matching with the Roman Catholic Church and Western European Empires.
Assyria = The Mongols/Turks/Ottomans
The mongols were decedents of Northern Assyrian peoples (later called Scythians) who migrated up through the Caucasus region to east Asia. Their brutality and fighting styles were similar. But more importantly their effects upon later empires. The Mongol influence on Byzantium and Russia matching the Assyrian influence on Babylon and Israel.
Destruction/Captivity of Israel = Destruction/Captivity of Constantinople
Much research to do concerning this section… Just as the Northern Kingdom is destroyed by the Assyrians and carried off captive to later settle in Armenia, Tibet and Mongolia, so is Constantinople and much of the Eastern Orthodox church destroyed by Ottoman Turks, Mongols and the Golden Horde (All Turkish Nomadic Warriors) and again much is carried away into Armenia Tibet and Mongolia. There is a lot of mystery hidden in this type, but its unraveling holds the keys of how Buddhism and the East fit into the Gospel plan.
Diaspora of Judah (600-200 BC) = European Colonialism of the World (1500-1900 AD)
Just as God leads Lehi, Mulek and a host of other Israelites to (re)colonize and (re)populate every major continent and “isle of the sea” (2 Ne 10:21) from about 600 BC to 400 BC, so also European Christians like Christopher Columbus and Magellan are led by God to (re)colonize and (re)populate the world during the 15th through 17th centuries. This parallel is key to unraveling much of God’s use of Israel/Christianity to civilize the world fulfilling the Abrahamic Covenant. Many histories show that after the Babylonian diaspora Jewish enclaves popped up over much of Eurasia. Jewish & Semitic controlled ports were created up and down the eastern coast of Africa, all along the coasts of India and into Indonesia as well as throughout the Mediterranean and heading up into northern Europe. Historians are yet to discover the true magnitude and colonial parallel of this era. Just as it was not necessarily “Christianity” or any one European country that monopolized European Colonialism, so too it was not just “Judaism” or Israel that led the colonialism and imperialism of the world by Middle Eastern (Semitic) nations during the 6th to 2nd centuries before Christ.
However, one parallel of particular importance is that of the Lehite colonizing of North America with the English colonizing of North America. Both sparked restorational movements where a higher level of light was added to the mother religion (Judaism & Catholicism). Also Joseph Smith correlates chronologically to Alma the Elder, where both are regarded as “the founder of the church” (Mosiah 23:16, 29:47) which is given the responsibly of preparing a people ready for the Lords Coming.
Assyrian Sack of Israel (701 BC) = Tamerlane’s Sack of Eastern Orthodox Church & its Territories (1336–1405 AD)
Tamerlane (or Timur) the last great Turko-Mongol leader heads a campaign laying waste to much of the eastern church throughout Byzantium, Russia and the Russian steppe. The 15th century essentially marked the end of the Byzantine Empire. The Mongols were close analogs to the Assyrians in both origin and behavior.
Babylonian Captivity of Judah (586-446 BC) = Avignon Papacy & The Great Italian Wars (1494 – 1559 AD)
This parallel might be somewhat loose but still interesting and likely more thatn coincidence. The Great Italian wars, also called the Habsburg-Valois Wars, involved the papal states and most the major states of Western Europe associated with the Holy Roman Empire’s Habsburg Rulers (France, Spain, England, Scotland, etc). The war is associated with the Avignon Papacy, which is actually called by many historians the “Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy, because of its similarity in duration and scope. The war was a low point in European Unity, with the pope actually instigating part of the war against france. The Spanish and Portuguese inquisition was instituted during this time, as was the pope’s seizure of the papal states and building of St Peter’s Basilica which helped provoke the Reformation. Most certainly it was a major turning point for the Catholic church, the Holy Roman Empire, and Europe in general.
Ezra Rebuilding the temple (537 or 480 BC) = Martin Luther Reforms/ Rebuilds the Church (1517 AD)
Nabion states that it was 1000 yrs (exactly?) between Joshua and Ezra when Israel did not keep the feasts or the Law as given by Moses, thus we can also assume a period of 1000 yrs between Justinian and Luther when the Gentile church did not keep the spirit of the feasts or obey the Laws given to stay separate from Egypt/Babylon/Cesar. …The true date for the end of the 1000 yr period is more likely 1534 when Luther finished the translation of the ‘Luther Bible’ in German. This was about/exactly 1000 yrs from Justinian’s decree of 533/34.
But more important than Luther’s effect on Protestantism, was the Protestant movement’s effect on the mother church. The reformation brought about many, many needed reforms to Catholicism to bring it back to its roots.
Creation/Restoration of the Church through Alma = Restoration of the Church through Joseph Smith
As already mentioned Joseph Smith correlates chronologically to Alma the Elder, where both are regarded as “the founder of the church” (Mosiah 23:16, 29:47) which is given the responsibly of preparing a people ready for the Lords Coming. Additionally it is during this period of restoration among the Nephites that the Jaredite plates are found and interpreted giving a wealth of additional knowledge to the people, as well as a large amount of esoteric information to the prophets that is not allowed to be given to the Church in general (Mosiah 28:17–19, Ether 3:21–23, Ether 4:4).
Leontopolis Temple Built (169-154) = ????
Onias the rightful heir to the office of high priest flees to Egypt after temple is desecrated and builds a temple (the only functioning temple away from Jerusalem) at Leontopolis. This helps explain why Joseph & Mary fled to Egypt with Jesus, and why the Egyptian saints were so die-hard during the persecution of the first three centuries. The parallel is yet to be revealed, but has to do with the restoration of Judah and their rightful heir to the high priesthood (independent of the restoration work in America).
Babylonian Empire/Medo-Persia/Grecia/Rome-Sasinid = Early Russian Empire/Imperial Russia-Napoleonic Empire/British Empire/NATO-USSR
Just as Ezra came out of the Babylonian captivity so Luther came out of the Holy Roman Empire Captivity. There’s a lot more to these types though. The types have at least three different applications on three different levels. One is a loose European level, the next is a Eurasian level, the next is a global level. These types are the fulfillment to Daniel/John’s Revelation allegory. Getting too specific turns into speculation at this point.
Please read Redefining the LDS (Protestant) View of the “Great Apostasy” to see how this type helps to clear up misunderstandings LDS theology on the apostasy. As well as how it fulfills Bible prophesy, Modern Jewish prophesy, and the coming restoration of the Jewish state and Temple.
|Date||Times of Israel||Times of the Gentiles||Date|
|1052 BC||Saul / David’s Empire||Otto’s Holy Roman Empire||962 AD|
|930 BC||Split of Northern & Southern Kingdoms||The Great East-West Schism||1054 AD|
|720 BC||Assyrians destroy Northern Kingdom||Mongols/Turks/Ottomans (Islamic) destruction of the Eastern Church||1299 – 1453 AD|
|620 – 529 BC||Babylonian Empire||Byzantine Empire||– 1453 AD|
|500 – 300 BC||Median & Persian Empires||Habsburg Eastern Europe (Holy Roman) Empires||1550 – 1804 AD|
|336 – 100 BC||Macedonian (Greek) Empire||French & British Empire||1750 -1960 AD|
|100 BC – 300 AD||Roman Empire||American/E.U. Empire||1950 – ?|